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How Quantum Computers Break The Internet... Starting Now

  • Опубліковано 19 бер 2023
  • A quantum computer in the next decade could crack the encryption our society relies on using Shor's Algorithm. Head to brilliant.org/veritasium to start your free 30-day trial, and the first 200 people get 20% off an annual premium subscription.
    A huge thank you to those who helped us understand this complex field and ensure we told this story accurately - Dr. Lorenz Panny, Prof. Serge Fehr, Dr. Dustin Moody, Prof. Benne de Weger, Prof. Tanja Lange, PhD candidate Jelle Vos, Gorjan Alagic, and Jack Hidary.
    A huge thanks to those who helped us with the math behind Shor’s algorithm - Prof. David Elkouss, Javier Pagan Lacambra, Marc Serra Peralta, and Daniel Bedialauneta Rodriguez.
    Joseph, D., et al. (2022). Transitioning organizations to post-quantum cryptography. Nature, 605(7909), 237-243. - ve42.co/Joseph2022
    Bernstein, D. J., & Lange, T. (2017). Post-quantum cryptography. Nature, 549(7671), 188-194. - ve42.co/Bernstein2017
    An Insight, An Idea with Sundar Pichai - Quantum Computing, Wold Economic Forum via UAclips - ve42.co/QCWEFyt
    Migrating to Post-Quantum Cryptography, The White House - ve42.co/PQCWhiteHouse
    Kotas, W. A. (2000). A brief history of cryptography. University of Tennessee - ve42.co/Kotas2000
    Hellman, M. (1976). New directions in cryptography. IEEE transactions on Information Theory, 22(6), 644-654. - ve42.co/Hellman1976
    Rivest, R. L., Shamir, A., & Adleman, L. (1978). A method for obtaining digital signatures and public-key cryptosystems. Communications of the ACM, 21(2), 120-126. - ve42.co/Rivest1978
    Kak, A. (2023). Lecture 12: Public-Key Cryptography and the RSA Algorithm - ve42.co/Kak2023
    Calderbank, M. (2007). The RSA Cryptosystem: History, Algorithm, Primes. University of Chicago. - ve42.co/Calderbank2007
    Cryptographic Key Length Recommendation, Keylength - ve42.co/KeyLength
    Coppersmith, D. (2002). An approximate Fourier transform useful in quantum factoring. arXiv preprint quant-ph/0201067. - ve42.co/Coppersmith2002
    Quantum Fourier Transform, Qiskit - ve42.co/Qiskit
    Shor, P. W. (1994, November). Algorithms for quantum computation: discrete logarithms and factoring. In Proceedings 35th annual symposium on foundations of computer science (pp. 124-134). IEEE. - ve42.co/Shor1994
    Shor’s algorithm, Wikipedia - ve42.co/ShorWiki
    Euler’s totient function, Wikipedia - ve42.co/EulerWiki
    Asfaw, A. (2020). Shor’s Algorithm Lecture Series, Qiskit Summer School - ve42.co/ShorYT
    How Quantum Computers Break Encryption, minutephysics via UAclips - ve42.co/PQCmpyt
    Breaking RSA Encryption - an Update on the State-of-the-Art, QuintessenceLabs - ve42.co/QuintessenceLabs
    O'Gorman, J., & Campbell, E. T. (2017). Quantum computation with realistic magic-state factories. Physical Review A, 95(3), 032338. - ve42.co/OGorman2017
    Gidney, C., & Ekerå, M. (2021). How to factor 2048 bit RSA integers in 8 hours using 20 million noisy qubits. Quantum, 5, 433. - ve42.co/Gidney2021
    2021 Quantum Threat Timeline Report, Global Risk Institute - ve42.co/QuantumRisk
    The IBM Quantum Development Roadmap, IBM - ve42.co/IBMQC
    Post-Quantum Cryptography, Computer Security Resource Center (NIST) - ve42.co/CSRCPQC
    Alagic, G., et al. (2022). Status report on the third round of the NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization process. US Department of Commerce, NIST. - ve42.co/Alagic2022
    Thijs, L. (2015). Lattice cryptography and lattice cryptanalysis - ve42.co/Thijs2015
    Special thanks to our Patreon supporters:
    Tj Steyn, Meg Noah, Bernard McGee, KeyWestr, Elliot Miller, Jerome Barakos, M.D., Amadeo Bee, TTST, Balkrishna Heroor, Chris LaClair, John H. Austin, Jr., Eric Sexton, john kiehl, Anton Ragin, Diffbot, Gnare, Dave Kircher, Burt Humburg, Blake Byers, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Bill Linder, Paul Peijzel, Josh Hibschman, Mac Malkawi, Juan Benet, Ubiquity Ventures, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Stephen Wilcox, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi.
    Written by Casper Mebius & Derek Muller
    Edited by Trenton Oliver
    Filmed by Raquel Nuno
    Animated by Ivy Tello & Mike Radjabov
    Additional video/photos supplied by Getty Images & Pond5
    Music from Epidemic Sound & Jonny Hyman
    Produced by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev, & Emily Zhang


  • WarmWeatherGuy
    WarmWeatherGuy 2 місяці тому +26808

    As a science educator you should be particularly proud of this video. I've never seen this topic explained anywhere close to as good as what this video does. Kudos!

    • Anthony Vallad
      Anthony Vallad 2 місяці тому +103

      I totally agree !

    • Gavros963
      Gavros963 2 місяці тому +79

      There's Minutephysics who did it years ago.

    • LordOfNothingreally
      LordOfNothingreally 2 місяці тому +34

      Kurzgesagt did a very good video on quantum computers as well

    • LetoDK
      LetoDK 2 місяці тому +90

      Except for the fact that 95% of the viewers will NOT be able to keep up with it, and thus will get nothing out of it.

  • Ihab Fahmy
    Ihab Fahmy Місяць тому +1237

    _In 20 minutes, Derek explains public/private key cryptography and the effect quantum computing has on it better than anyone I have heard in the last 10 years! This is an insanely great visualization of the topic._

    • akjohnny
      akjohnny Місяць тому +2

      but does it matter tho

    • flint from mother 3 gaming
      flint from mother 3 gaming Місяць тому +38

      @akjohnny Does anything matter, does having the ability to cook matter when someone can do it for you, does it matter if you work when people can donate you money outside instead of working.

    • Vince C
      Vince C Місяць тому

      ​@flint from mother 3 gaming sorry about Hinawa

    • Miguel
      Miguel Місяць тому +11

      @akjohnny Does your identity matter? Your possessions? Job? Privacy?

  • emanresu
    emanresu Місяць тому +302

    This is my field of work, quantum hardware (PhD). Thanks for covering this topic. I participate in both the technical and non-technical coverage of quantum hardware. On that note, I'll be delivering some invited quantum hardware lecture series on the machines/chips we've been building at my research lab and more. It will be open to the public next week on April 12th with my IBM friends and QuantumGrad. You are all welcomed to join us to learn about what tools and equipment we use to build real quantum devices in the field. Ignore the naysayers, let's keep building and learning from what we build. -Onri the Diné Quantum Engineer

    • OliverWendellDouglas
      OliverWendellDouglas Місяць тому +2

      That all sounds great, but I'm here to find out if the Blue Kachina danced yet or not.

    • DukeofBlasphemy
      DukeofBlasphemy Місяць тому +3

      please don't the future is scary enough as it is. humans with incredible powers and technology is not a good thing.

    • Seth Murrant
      Seth Murrant Місяць тому +15

      @DukeofBlasphemy then get off your phone

    • DukeofBlasphemy
      DukeofBlasphemy Місяць тому +1

      @Seth Murrant i don't own a phone

    • Opinions
      Opinions Місяць тому +4

      ​@DukeofBlasphemy tf you using to type this

  • Darshan Dani
    Darshan Dani Місяць тому +144

    The ability this man has to simplify the most complex things is on another level. I very much appreciate the efforts and research that goes into each video. Thank you so much, and please keep making such content ✨

    • V
      V 8 днів тому +2

      Scott Aaronson even recommends this video (and trashes Kaku's book) in "Book Review: “Quantum Supremacy” by Michio Kaku (tl;dr DO NOT BUY)" on his blog

  • Ed Paul
    Ed Paul Місяць тому +73

    Quantum computing is both extremely fascinating and terrifying at the same time.

  • yourhost
    yourhost Місяць тому +97

    Keep making more of these videos my brain LOVES IT! You explained it so well compared to every other video I’ve watched on this topic. I’m thinking of all the possibilities. A chess bot that sees 100 moves ahead, a solution to the 3x - 1 problem, a gaming PC that can process petabytes in less than a second, so much. The possibilities are exponential with the more qubits there are, but breaking encryption does seem like a real threat unless we had a chapter book of random characters for each of our passwords.
    All your videos are amazing. Never stop!

    • Atash Gallagher
      Atash Gallagher Місяць тому +3

      Looking at unreal engine 5, gpt-4, and the most recent stable diffusion models, thinking what those could do for the dialogue, visuals, and art in games. And then imagining what those could do running on massive quantum computers.
      Imagine a game with dialogue and story written in real time based on your actions. With the art and sound and music all done in real time as you play. It would be like the entire game is being made for you.
      And all of it would look completely indistinguishable from real life.
      And this could be made into VR which wouldn't be too hard to turn into a completely immersive full dive system like the matrix. Just less AI torture Sim and more giant videogame paradise.
      I honestly think that that's where the aliens are. The Fermi paradox's solution is that aliens invent quantum computers, invent AI, and create VR and then all dissappear into matrix style simulation paradises.
      You can just be doing whatever you want in a game of D&D with friends but you're actually there. Whatever you can dream of.
      And there are people who say you'd get sick of it eventually but just temporarily section off your memory do you can experience it for the first time a thousand times and remember all those afterwards.

    • K S
      K S 27 днів тому +1

      ​​@Atash Gallagher not a big fan of the idea of altering my perseption of reality to that extent. And I'm a sucker for new tech and and video games

    • CatONfire
      CatONfire 25 днів тому +7

      You missed the concept entirely. Quantom computers arent just super strong all powerful computers capable of solving any enigma we hold. RIght now they can barely factor two numbers

  • Saquib Faisal
    Saquib Faisal Місяць тому +76

    You too are an unsung hero Derek. I've never seen any video simplifying quantum computation in such a layman's language. We learn a lot from you and respect your work(specially this one). Thank you for giving us Vertasium.

    • Cheryl L. Fox
      Cheryl L. Fox Місяць тому +3

      I've had zero explaining on how, what, why any computing works. Being 57,I never understood how everything reduced to one's & zero's! But I understood what this guy was explaining quite well. No glazed eyes here! It made perfect sense to me. To see it, is to understand it. Maybe it was the spacial thing, using the graph, along with 3-D imaging. I'm Amazed! Now I see how ones's & zero's work!

    • Saquib Faisal
      Saquib Faisal Місяць тому +2

      @Cheryl L. Fox you know what's more amazing? People like you who are curious and never stop learning regardless of their age. We need more people like you. Thanks for existing.

  • User
    User Місяць тому +40

    This must have taken you so much time and effort to think through how to so perfectly and efficiently explain these complex topics. You have an incredible talent for educating. Great video!!

  • Ashwin Anil
    Ashwin Anil Місяць тому +32

    Dude...!!! You exist for a reason and what you do is definitely the right path you've chosen. Someone give this man a medal !!!!

    • Magnisox
      Magnisox Місяць тому +1

      he doesnt need a medal, he is a medal

    • Peter
      Peter Місяць тому

      pretty sure he is just a narrator, and the one who deserves the medal is the animator.

    • Magnisox
      Magnisox Місяць тому

      @Peter the script maker deserves that

    • Peter
      Peter Місяць тому

      @MagnisoxI couldn't agree more.

  • Shæffen
    Shæffen Місяць тому +22

    No other creator is able to make a video that talks about math the whole time and get millions of views in a month. This is great content

    • Mrp1
      Mrp1 Місяць тому +2


    • Shæffen
      Shæffen Місяць тому

      I forgor about him 💀

  • Mathocity
    Mathocity 2 місяці тому +1491

    He explained Cryptography, Quantum Computing, RSA algorithm and many more in a single video!! We should be grateful that he's providing this content for free.

    • EJ S
      EJ S Місяць тому +1

      Adsense.... Except it got demo....... By yt

    • Delayed Creator
      Delayed Creator Місяць тому +3

      by doing analogies ,its not hard

    • zvnavv3w5
      zvnavv3w5 Місяць тому +12

      Yes and no. The problem is that we have these theoretical mathematical concepts that work in these hypothetical situations we construct, between these finite and infinite sets, yet how do we logically constrain and manipulate these quantum variables in a translatable and meaningful way? We create these incredibly uniform states and measure such limited, inaccurate characteristics - have we really advanced anything about our ability to compute, here? Sure, we could theoretically perform multiple operations and read/write data based on measurable states stored in the existence of "particles" on a scale much greater than our current finite computing systems, but there is a reason this has been a concern for the last 18 years with little progress towards true weaponization - the results are still horrendously inaccurate and meaningless - how do you quantify the infinite gradient of results into our finite computational understanding? All we have really done, as far as this specific video is concerned, is highlighted fundamental flaws in RSA and general asymmetric trust-based encryption, which is something we can simulate with a normal binary super-computer. There is no magic here - we are either purposefully blinding ourselves in order to acquire grant money to perpetuate meaningless quantum computing research or unintentionally confusing ourselves by finding different and terribly inefficient ways of computing basic set theory and calculus problems.

    • Here We are
      Here We are Місяць тому +1

      If not, someone else would on youtube?

    • youme1414
      youme1414 Місяць тому

      How is that the case, sir? There are more detailed information available online as well.

  • Angus Chiu
    Angus Chiu 2 дні тому

    The best thing this video does is not only telling you that quantum computing will break modern day encryption, but also daring to explain how it works using secondary school mathematics. It’s just awesome.

  • glitchy_weasel
    glitchy_weasel Місяць тому +8

    Uff! What a fantastic video. Never managed to wrap my head around quantum computers, so your video is the first time I grasped the essence of simple quantum computer concepts. One of your bests yet, in my opinion!

  • MetaBallStudios
    MetaBallStudios 2 місяці тому +570

    Thank you for bringing this technology closer to us and understanding a little more about how amazing it can be.

    • j
      j 2 місяці тому


      N E W L I N E S C H A N N E L 2 місяці тому

      Yes, lol

    • DarkRRider
      DarkRRider 2 місяці тому +4

      Hey metaballer 🎉

    • DevilKush
      DevilKush 2 місяці тому +7

      How amazing it going to be lol more like how dark the future is going to be

    • Ali Salehuddin
      Ali Salehuddin 2 місяці тому +3

      Never expect to see you here..

    ORBITO 5 днів тому

    My head was melting after 4 mins in ( I will stay in my lane of 3D Animation). All you guys that understand these complex math, I respect your abilities and hats off to you all.

  • joaofbravo
    joaofbravo 11 днів тому +5

    An important note: by now, there are many approaches to post-quantum encryption protocols besides lattice-based ones. However, all of them are only *thought* to be secure against a quantum attack :)

    • Cipher
      Cipher 3 години тому


  • Viniter
    Viniter 2 місяці тому +2948

    I know this video is probably not going to beat the black balls reservoir or some of your other viral hits, but this is really one of the most impressive pieces of science communication you've made over the many years I followed your channel. These are some incredibly difficult to understand concepts and you really made them make sense. I watched a bunch of videos on RSA and quantum computing, but I never quite got it. Now I get it.

    • Basenji Adventures
      Basenji Adventures 2 місяці тому +10

      This video should get that many views and more. 💯

    • KingDong
      KingDong 2 місяці тому +23

      black balls? 🤣🤣🤣🤣🤣

    • (Prod.Yafa)
      (Prod.Yafa) 2 місяці тому +11

      @KingDong on what website could I find this video?

    • Viniter
      Viniter 2 місяці тому +47

      @KingDong Yeah, 96 million of them! Derek's black balls are his most popular video! It has almost as many views as there is balls in it.

    • gravysauce
      gravysauce 2 місяці тому +15

      @Viniter Hahaha. I feel so immature laughing at balls.

  • David Terr
    David Terr Місяць тому +3

    Great, easily comprehensible explanation of Shor's algorithm! I also really liked your explanation of the proposed multidimensional lattice encryption system, which will hopefully replace RSA soon!

  • Postulating Spin
    Postulating Spin Місяць тому +5

    Remarkable presentation in a world of the “utterly unremarkable.” Equipped with only a rudimentary education in mathematics, even I was able to grasp what you were trying to explain. Bravo….if only I had teachers like you whilst growing up.

  • D
    D 7 днів тому

    Your talent in explaining is so cool. Even someone from a non cybersecurity background would get this.

  • gimplar
    gimplar 17 днів тому

    I love these videos so much. Exploring incredibly complex topics and breaking everything down in under 30 minutes. Beautiful work.

  • cyberbilge
    cyberbilge Місяць тому +2

    What an incredibly clear and easy to follow explanation. Your videos are always great but this was exceptional.

  • Anthony Mack
    Anthony Mack 2 місяці тому +2175

    This is the best explanation of how quantum superiority breaks the RSA algorithm (and also the best explanation of a possible solution to the problem) I have ever heard. I know how hard it is to teach a complicated subject in a clear and simple manner. Well done!

    • GreenAppelPie
      GreenAppelPie 2 місяці тому +18

      Indeed, excellent graphics

    • sundog aurora
      sundog aurora 2 місяці тому +33

      First time I see a yellow comment 😯

    • an human
      an human 2 місяці тому +3

      ​@sundog aurora I saw it somewhere else 😂

    • an human
      an human 2 місяці тому +6


    • datamed datamed
      datamed datamed Місяць тому +1

      ❤ Agree 100%%%%

  • ғʀᴏᴢᴇɴꨄᴡᴀᴠᴇs
    ғʀᴏᴢᴇɴꨄᴡᴀᴠᴇs Місяць тому +10

    Very informative and well explained! Tomorrow I've my college exam on information security and this really helped me to understand RSA algo better. Thanks a lot!

  • Abdullah Alofi
    Abdullah Alofi 25 днів тому +2

    I’m a quantum computing enthusiast and have never been closer to understanding it until I’ve watched this video. Thank you very much !.

  • Drifter0001
    Drifter0001 5 днів тому

    You know, with all your fancy math and calculations, you lost me a few times but I always found my way back (that is a lie). Your stuff is quite informative on more than one level.

  • SeiShinCasios
    SeiShinCasios Місяць тому +3

    I love your videos! They allow me a look into such interesting topics that would normally be way over my knowledge levels and actually get a graps of its meaning.

  • Aaron Mcdaniel
    Aaron Mcdaniel Місяць тому +1

    This is a genuinely helpful and intuitive description of Shor's algorithm and quantum cryptography. More so than I've seen in my actual quantum computing class I've taken. You explained a topic well in 30 minutes that took me 3 months to understand.

  • NGUD_Gaming
    NGUD_Gaming 2 місяці тому +1833

    As someone who absolutely detested math in every level of education I’m blown away by the fact I’m able to follow and understand this because your explanation and presentation is simple yet detailed.

    • ButterfaceMcGillicutty
      ButterfaceMcGillicutty 2 місяці тому +79

      That's because math isn't taught be people who know how to teach math. Math teachers can only really teach towards other math-minded people. Like about the 15-25% of kids who have a natural math aptitude. The remaining 75%-85% of us have all sorts of trouble. Math pedagogy is shitty.

      AYUBALLENA 2 місяці тому +5

      @ButterfaceMcGillicutty as a math like I’ve experienced that with my other classmates

    • Teutonic Spacehopper
      Teutonic Spacehopper 2 місяці тому +16

      I got to 9-minutes in, and my brain switched off. In 47 years, I have never found a day where algebra is needed in my life.

    • M R
      M R 2 місяці тому +8

      I only got the last part, everything else was russianese to me.

    • Someone Else
      Someone Else 2 місяці тому +38

      @Teutonic Spacehopper Well, without it you would not be writing this comment, because you would probably be a serf. Be grateful that it exists, and perhaps also grateful that you have a life easy enough that you do not have to bother to use it.

  • MikesxAnimations
    MikesxAnimations Місяць тому +6

    The amount of times I forgot what this video was about is crazy but it's a good thing, haven't seen equations like that since I did pure math a couple years ago , great video 👌

    • Jazzling
      Jazzling Місяць тому +3

      What is pure math

    • MikesxAnimations
      MikesxAnimations Місяць тому +2

      @Jazzling it's basically calculus ...I think , don't quote me tho 😂

  • VX
    VX Місяць тому

    I love this, it is great to hear about the people working behind the scenes to keep us safe for years to come. One day I will look back at this video and thank you and all the scientists/ mathematicians for working to keep our data safe as well as showing how it will be kept safe 🙂

  • Arvind Radhakrishnan
    Arvind Radhakrishnan Місяць тому +2

    This was such an amazing video. Super clear content and so beautifully illustrated! Thank you

  • MOOSE.762
    MOOSE.762 25 днів тому +2

    Great video Man. If i had teachers like you in school back in the day it could have a huge difference in my life. ❤

  • Russ Glove
    Russ Glove Місяць тому +2

    Could you imagine what might happen when quantum computing is pinned down, and combined with the latest developments in AI.
    Also. Fantastic video!!

    • ee y
      ee y Місяць тому

      i think we are scrued if they let that happens.

  • Aung Thu Hein
    Aung Thu Hein 2 місяці тому +1620

    There should be like an award for how much effort a creator puts into a single video on UAclips.

    • Chris B. Heckons
      Chris B. Heckons 2 місяці тому +27

      its amazing its like a A+++ project for a final. and the great references!!!!

    • Bill Keller
      Bill Keller 2 місяці тому +11

      There is, you watching it!

    • symphony
      symphony 2 місяці тому +7

      there is it's called a youtube award

    • Dude, smell my helmet.
      Dude, smell my helmet. 2 місяці тому +3

      This isn't the winner though. He has much more amazing productions

    • Aung Thu Hein
      Aung Thu Hein 2 місяці тому +3

      @Dude, smell my helmet. Like which one? I feel like this one has the most stuff in it compared to videos he made recently.

  • Shaina A
    Shaina A Місяць тому +3

    When the 8 to the power of 0 which equals to 1 appears on screen, everything clicked and IT FEELS SO THRILLING! It feels like watching a mystery case get solved, and I'm just there watching it unfold magnificently. I sincerely thank you, Mr. Veritasium, for making science enjoyable and accessible!

  • Blackbody Economics
    Blackbody Economics Місяць тому +1

    Best video you've done in a while my friend. It's odd that very few people have tackled PQC / QRCA ... so props for actually diving into this. Very cool. Thanks man :)

  • Qrispy
    Qrispy Місяць тому

    I always believed guessing the answer in a math exam at school is better than solving it😂

    KYSMO Місяць тому +1

    This video cleared up some of the confusion I was having understanding quantum computing - and using RSA keys on a daily basis I never knew it was the first letters of the creators last name - very well done

  • Fizskip
    Fizskip Місяць тому +1

    Great video as a person with some knowledge in cryptography, it was amazing to see how you could explain so many hard topics to understand in 20 minutes.

  • Nuno Cordeiro
    Nuno Cordeiro 2 місяці тому +1937

    Dude, I went to the International Math Olympiad and this stuff is hard for me. The fact that you're trying to teach this shows incredible respect for your audience.
    I usually have youtube on the background while doing other stuff. Not this video....

    • GauRakshak
      GauRakshak 2 місяці тому +9

      What city was the math Olympiad held in when you went

    • AG
      AG 2 місяці тому +39

      A firm understanding of the basics of quantum theory is more relevant in this video than math, I guess.

    • J
      J 2 місяці тому +48

      This video worried me so much because almost all of it went over my head really fast. Your comment gave me solace, thank you.

    • Hisham Demmisse
      Hisham Demmisse 2 місяці тому +7

      Nice. I was stuck on the Nationals :( and yea it’s tricky. And I do Real Analysis / Topology

    • ColossalCake
      ColossalCake 2 місяці тому +7

      I tried to have this on in the background, I have no idea what just happened.

  • Fid Rewe
    Fid Rewe Місяць тому +1

    Congratulations, you did an amazing job at making this comprehensible for non quantum computing / encryption experts.

  • H M
    H M Місяць тому +3

    For once in my life I've practically seen the impact math can have on our lives. Finally lol

    • petnoto bg
      petnoto bg Місяць тому

      It really is so cool! I recently started watching a channel called Zac Star. And the channel focuses on explaining how math can be practical. And it's because of that channel that I actually came to see why math is important. It's super interesting, I recommend it quite a lot.

  • Koi Royal
    Koi Royal 10 годин тому

    Incredible, just absolutely incredible to explain this much research in one video. Bravo

  • Ben Lewis
    Ben Lewis 24 дні тому +1

    It's going to be a significant challenge validating the mathematical computations carried out with a Quantum Computer. Non-Determinism and numerical instability could be huge problems when it comes to practical implementation.

  • John Clark
    John Clark 2 години тому

    This is the clearest explanation of how quantum computers work that I have ever seen. Excellent work!

  • TimeBucks
    TimeBucks 2 місяці тому +781

    Unbelievable how effectively you can summarize

  • Neal Walters
    Neal Walters Місяць тому

    I agree with other comments. As a software developer, I've never seen such a clear explanation. Love the graph at 17:40 (time marker) that shows when the two trends meet.

  • Reda Bitar
    Reda Bitar Місяць тому +2

    You can get me as good of a teacher as you to explain why someone would dislike this video, and I still wouldn’t understand.
    You’re a fantastic teacher.

  • Gonzalo Jesús Eyzaguirre Dias
    Gonzalo Jesús Eyzaguirre Dias Місяць тому

    This was amazingly explained. These are very complicated topics and you managed to simplify them so much. Thank you.

  • Eden
    Eden Місяць тому +1

    Really great explanation of RSA, I just took an intro to C class where we had to implement it and pretty much write it all ourselves, wish I had this video like a month and a half ago lol. I still got 100% but man it was tough. Great work though

  • Franklin.Half.Addict
    Franklin.Half.Addict 21 день тому

    This video confused the heck out of me since I don’t understand most of the terms he’s using, but it was still fascinating to watch and listen to. It’s amazing how smart some people are that figure this type of stuff out.

  • Sam
    Sam 2 місяці тому +1680

    The existence of quantum resistance algorithms is very important to note. But the idea that stuff is being saved now that doesn't use those methods is interesting. Hadn't thought of that before.

    • ZeroOne
      ZeroOne 2 місяці тому +42

      might see a period of criminals cracking this data and extorting other criminals. wild

    • Robert
      Robert 2 місяці тому +60

      I would not worry much about it. My classic computer with classic piece of software can brake 20y old database in (mili)seconds. Nobody cares much about it. I guess the same will happen 20y in future. But scaremongering bring lots of views=money.

    • ffc1 a28c
      ffc1 a28c 2 місяці тому +22

      Fun fact. NISS is in the process of standardizing post quantum cryptography. We already know which algorithms will be used in a decade.

      LUNARSCAPES 2 місяці тому +190

      @Robert Yeah but also 20 years ago people didn’t have their entire lives and businesses online

    • Ferdinand Keller
      Ferdinand Keller 2 місяці тому +17

      It feels like in tenet where we are fighting with the future.

  • Jason Peet
    Jason Peet 10 днів тому

    I like the way you present superposition this way the gradient combined with the turning and the equation changing in sync was a really nice touch anyone could understand

    • Jason Peet
      Jason Peet 10 днів тому

      Seriously stuff like this is gonna be key for getting people on board with progressive ideas.

  • petnoto bg
    petnoto bg Місяць тому +1

    What an amazing video!
    You showed us a problem, and explained exactly how it works, how it finds a loophole in our current way of doing cybersecurity and abuses it. For this step alone you literally had to explain what quantum computers are and how they work, how we currently do cybersecurity, and how these two things can interact with each other. Each of which is a very complex topic. And you do all of this within 15 minutes or so in a clear, understandable, interactive and memorable way. AND ON TOP OF ALL OF THIS you continue by giving us a possible solution to this problem and explaining how it would work (which meant having to explain a complex theory in maths) and at the same time keep the video as short and clear as it it. Absolutely amazing.

  • Azhar Haque
    Azhar Haque Місяць тому +1

    I was amazed by the amount of information and effort that went into this video

  • Narayan G. Maharjan
    Narayan G. Maharjan Місяць тому +1

    Best explanation of quantum computers and algorithms. Kudos to all supporters that help this video so well and informative

  • Hellnation13666
    Hellnation13666 Місяць тому

    this is the greatest explanation ever, such great work. Thank you. I've been trying to verbally explain this to a few people before and had a hard time.

  • Alej Random
    Alej Random 2 місяці тому +908

    As a math enthusiast I appreciate a lot the fact that you are willing to make hardcore math topics understandable for the general public ♡

  • david richard
    david richard Місяць тому +2

    I’m no mathematician but I find looking into the mathematician’s world fascinating.

  • Ross Plays
    Ross Plays Місяць тому +1

    The best explanation I’ve seen so far! Amazing job Dr. Muller!

  • GünniBusch
    GünniBusch Місяць тому +3

    Nice! Could you maybe make a video about homomorphic encryption? It’s a encryption that lets you do encrypted calculations.

  • Peter Nemere
    Peter Nemere Місяць тому

    Sensational video, the explanations are so clear follow-able. I was sick of reading random articles over the years of how quantum computers will break everything with no attempt to even explain why, because the article authors themselves had no clue to begin with.

  • Gistus
    Gistus  Місяць тому

    What I like about the strategies in math that are being used to decipher the encrytpion for the quantum computational process is that it apporaches maths in a way i've never seen before, they are using the relationships to numbers and their common patternality to draw as a functional computational point of reference, and even me as somone who struggles with traditonal numerical concepts due to my dislexia, I am able to pictrure this, and personally, for some reason I find it easier to visualise, it's beautiful, and just reaffirms for me that maths really is the source code to the universe around us, and this form of maths to me actually resonates with me so i'm able to try to understand it.

  • Craig Gidney
    Craig Gidney 2 місяці тому +330

    I made the 20M qubit estimate referred to at 17:15. I was impressed by this video. Shor's algorithm is a really hard algorithm to explain. It depends crucially on bits of signal processing, of number theory, of computer science, and of quantum physics. I think the video did a good job of demonstrating the core concepts of the algorithm, while skipping several of the finicky details.
    I also appreciated a popular video including cost estimates based on plausible hardware, instead of magical perfect hardware. Probably the most controversial bit to me is the plot wildly speculating that the estimated costs will drop by another factor of 100 over the next decade. But, on the other hand, who can say what trick will be found to crunch down arithmetic circuits. Karatsuba found his multiplication algorithm within a week of it being conjectured impossible.

    • Oosman Beekawoo
      Oosman Beekawoo 2 місяці тому +9

      Wow man! Hats off! 🎩
      You actually got good content now that I see!

    • Joel Williamson
      Joel Williamson 2 місяці тому +14

      We all appreciate people like you coming and writing feedback on these videos. We trust Derek to have accurate information, but it adds an extra layer when experts confirm that the content is explained well and accurate as usual.

    • Tim McDonough
      Tim McDonough 2 місяці тому +9

      Great paper Craig. I have read it multiple times. On facet that is often missed is that increasing the key size from RSA 2048 to RSA 3072 only provides another year or two of protection. ECDSA has a similar fate.
      To anyone freaked out about this, don't panic. A new set of algorithms are rolling out, just like other transitions over the last 30+ years.
      Again, Crag stellar work! Thank you!

    • Vigilant Cosmic Penguin
      Vigilant Cosmic Penguin 2 місяці тому

      Wow, you're practically a celebrity of the quantum computing world.

  • runforitman
    runforitman 5 днів тому

    i find it so interesting how math protects the digital realm to the point it is unbreakable, for a period
    while you cant do that with physical things
    they can always be broken

  • Debojit Sen
    Debojit Sen 20 днів тому

    You're another reason why I've loved physics.

  • Isti115
    Isti115 Місяць тому +2

    At 15:55 the plus sign clips into the angle bracket. Not that I want to nitpick, but rather the opposite, I think that the visuals are amazing and I'd like to contribute by letting you know that there might be a bug in the engine you're using to create them, so you (or the team that created it) can fix it. 🙂

  • Kraft Der Wahl
    Kraft Der Wahl Місяць тому

    I want to thank you for publishing this video. It was beautifully done and the graphics were simple to understand.

  • imBingus
    imBingus 19 днів тому

    Thanks! I have been trying to understand quantum computing for a while now. Not as long as it's been around; but long enough.
    This explanation single handedly made me understand.

  • Skyward
    Skyward 2 місяці тому +967

    I'm a CS student and have been trying to understand this concept recently, but the explanations I've found in the internet have been too complex. This was the best explanation I've found. I'm not sure if I understand everything you said but I understood most of it. Thanks!

    • Jesse
      Jesse 2 місяці тому +8

      Instead of bits, we now have qubits, 0 and 1 until measured, a superstition state until measured. Once measured and revealed, the qbits can possibly be 0 and 1 in many probabilities.

    • stijn van severen
      stijn van severen 2 місяці тому +11


      drTERRRORRR 2 місяці тому +5

      Just imagine the logical gateway that remains in both states simultaneously.
      That's basically it from the IT perspective.

    • Smokin_D3ad
      Smokin_D3ad 2 місяці тому

      @Jesse can it be 0 and 1 at the same time?

    • Maxi Mooze
      Maxi Mooze 2 місяці тому +4

      Like PBS space time. 😂

  • Al Amin
    Al Amin Місяць тому +1

    This video is so well done that it qualifies as genius. Thank you for enlightening me!

  • datamed datamed
    datamed datamed Місяць тому +1

    Thank you for you're contribution to applied science and development. I believe that we should continue to development security against the threat of Qauntum Computing as if it gets in the wrong hands of a malicious actor or actors it can be disastrous. I believe confidentiality should be key for the welfare of tje whole world including our respective governments. Thank you!

  • ashish babbar
    ashish babbar Місяць тому

    Just amazed to see such simple explanation of such complex topics

  • Abderrahim Benmoussa
    Abderrahim Benmoussa Місяць тому

    There should be a nobel prize for being able to make a biologist understand maths and you would have it

  • Rafael Karosuo
    Rafael Karosuo Місяць тому

    I truly wonder how AI would play on this, where we might end up having AIs fighting each other to encrypt and break the encryption.

  • Kenny Yeung
    Kenny Yeung 2 місяці тому +693

    After watching countless videos trying to understand this topic, this is honestly the only one that I can follow through! Well done and please keep cranking more videos. Thank you so much!

    • Moshil Parshung
      Moshil Parshung 2 місяці тому +21

      Keep it up. Happy to see your support to the channel.

    • Fushiii
      Fushiii 2 місяці тому +14

      Love to see the support!

    • Ko
      Ko 2 місяці тому +2

      you need to understand the (mostly simple) math behind those algo to truly appreciate what's going on

    • Mobius 1
      Mobius 1 2 місяці тому +17

      ​@OrionCinema Go make your own money.

    • U
      U 2 місяці тому +6

      @OrionCinema< former scammer found

  • Anthonios Wayne
    Anthonios Wayne Місяць тому

    This is the only video in veritasium that are really complex and I actually understand🤣. He explained so well.

  • Christian D
    Christian D 28 днів тому

    This for a guy that has been studying quantum theory for dozens of years, and I couldn't explain it with such grace.. Powerful video.

  • Alan Roy
    Alan Roy 29 днів тому

    Thank you so much for this explanation. I have been searching for an explanation that is clear to me for months. No other explanation comes close to this one. Crystal clear,

  • Dozie D
    Dozie D Місяць тому

    I am a doctor and scientist who is above-average in maths and I am struggling to understand some parts of the video, but I can tell that it is well-made (even though it is not QC for Dummies). I will return to it a bit later as I find the topic interesting.

  • alan smithee
    alan smithee Місяць тому

    4:20 - 5:15
    I spent this time getting gradually more and more terrified that you had somehow managed to get this wrong, hoping beyond hope the superposition measurement thing would be clarified. And it was! Thank god. Even my university course missed out the fact that when you measure it it collapses to just one of the answers... It's honestly depressing.

  • Jared Tambala
    Jared Tambala 2 місяці тому +687

    You just managed to explain half a semester of QIT in a single video. This is absolutely fantastic! I wish I'd had this video back in college!

    • Attewir
      Attewir 2 місяці тому +19

      Someone (not me) would say you need that semesters half to understand it

    • Apof
      Apof 2 місяці тому +10

      @Attewir Hey, I'm the someone

    • Nombre
      Nombre 2 місяці тому

      What’s QIT

    • John Doe
      John Doe 2 місяці тому +1

      Quantum information theory

    • Jeff Caplan
      Jeff Caplan 2 місяці тому +11

      All QIT is missing is U!

  • CS
    CS Місяць тому +1

    There should be a separate revenue scheme from UAclips for channels trying to take the world forward. A mindless vlog and a video of this calibre should never be judged on the same parameters. ❤❤

  • MAgnet C0re
    MAgnet C0re Місяць тому

    Literally the only thing this video doesn't explain is what happens when r is odd. this video has such brilliant visualization and explanation of everything, 10/10.

  • Yavor Kaludov
    Yavor Kaludov Місяць тому

    This is one of the most fantastic explanations! Thank you.

  • Bee JayGee
    Bee JayGee Місяць тому +1

    I got about halfway through and this video melted my brain.
    But I can say one thing for sure..
    The future world of quantum computers is very exciting, but also VERY scary.

  • Anum Sheraz
    Anum Sheraz 15 днів тому

    DAMN, 3:22 - 5:36 you explained such a complex quantum ocmputing limitation in such simple words. Excellent job. Keep up the good work. Sub++

  • chronoflect
    chronoflect 2 місяці тому +449

    I've always thought of quantum computers as being some sort of magic box that does something with superposition to get an answer through brute-forcing every input at once. This video finally made me realize that the answer itself must also be in a superposition, so the result you're looking for can't just be 1 of the possible states; it has to be encoded across all of the possible states so that you can still retrieve it after the superposition collapses. This really shines some light on what kinds of problems quantum computers are actually useful for.

    • Kirill Burtsev
      Kirill Burtsev 2 місяці тому +40

      Actually your comment made me understand that portion of the video.

    • Serrated Edge
      Serrated Edge 2 місяці тому +1

      Isn't this videos title misleading/wrong because of infinite monkey theorom?

    • MegaMan X
      MegaMan X 2 місяці тому +2

      @Serrated Edge How does that: "The Infinite Monkey Theorem", apply to this video?
      I feel like you have something to contribute, but you didn't explain your thought well enough.
      The title is mostly true, because much of the internet works through end-to-end encryption noted by the "locked" symbol in your web address bar(at least seen through Chrome on a PC). Quantum computers, which will be basically a supercomputer multiplied, could figure out the encryption key used in the internet session fast enough for your session to be intercepted. Whereas a supercomputer today COULD figure out your encryption key for your session, but much slower and therefore it'd take much longer and burn up a lot of resources(time, electricity, etc.).
      I think our current batch of "AIs" could speed up the rate at which quantum computers "break" current encryption standards, so I hope they get new encryption figured out fast! 😅

    • Serrated Edge
      Serrated Edge 2 місяці тому +4

      @MegaMan X I explained it in great length in another post, I will copy paste, I hope it is not too nuanced lol.
      Encryption isn't like a key to a door, where it either twists or not. Encryption will always kick back gibberish, so how do we know we've broken the encryption?
      Essentially Infinite monkey theorem. (crazy nuanced explanation, you can skip and come back if you're confused, I thought it was a fun thought experiment too.)
      We have a "pocket dimension" box full of billions of keys, we use these keys on our magical portal encryption door, in search for our childhood bedroom. We go through millions of rooms, (sorta like in monster inc,) most of them looking crazy, unworldly and even unsafe. Finally peering into a room that looks like the one, we pause and step in. Our protagonist doesn't have a great recollection, unbenounced to him, this is not his childhood bedroom, it's just a randomly generated room that he has been fooled by. In that pocket dimension full of keys there were another thousand like it.
      Isn't it still possible that a quantum computer with it's goal aimed at breaking encryption would also generate these "hallucinations" / results that were plausible but not the case?

    • Max Fitz
      Max Fitz 2 місяці тому +4

      @Serrated Edge I don't think you understand the problem here. Here, we know N. It is the product of two primes, p and q. If we can find p and q then we can decode the message.
      In the case where we did NOT know N and we just tried to decode the message by checking all possible primes p and q. Then, we may produce these "hallucinations".

  • Adam Sewall
    Adam Sewall Місяць тому

    Derek, well done. We work in the field and have yet to provide as a succinct and eloquent explanation for lay people. Well done.. we will be sharing within our company and to others as well. Great work!

    • Raghavendran T B
      Raghavendran T B Місяць тому

      What work are you doing?

    • Adam Sewall
      Adam Sewall Місяць тому

      @Raghavendran T B Development and application of quantum resistant encryption (algos/functionality), test of quantum resistant comms.

    • Raghavendran T B
      Raghavendran T B Місяць тому

      @Adam Sewall How do I start learning that?

  • monkeyman_31
    monkeyman_31 Місяць тому

    this is unreal, im about to graduate, took my MA 340 class, applicable algebra, which in reality is just crypotography, its cool to see a video on the stuff i'm learrning right now in school.

  • Anthony Shiels
    Anthony Shiels 4 дні тому

    I did both the Highest Common Factor and Least Common Multiple when I was in Primary School.
    With a University Degree in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics I have NEVER seen it since.
    I would not be able to do this calculation today until I saw this presentation.

  • Steve Wyeth
    Steve Wyeth Місяць тому +1

    I learnt so much from this video. It was mostly that I'm not good at maths or science though.

  • perafilozof
    perafilozof Місяць тому

    I dislike math, and I suck at it, and yet you managed to explain math which is far above my head to me. Outstanding.

  • Tim Zeiske
    Tim Zeiske 2 місяці тому +306

    I'm very impressed with how you can make such complex topics accessible. And it's not even one complex topic it's like 10 different extremely complex topics, in 24 minutes. Hats off

    • Yuv
      Yuv 2 місяці тому +3

      Hats off indeed!

    • Calix
      Calix 2 місяці тому

      He needs to explain 10 topics in order for people to understand the main point. Not all viewers have an understanding in the basics of math or physics, so in order to make a point he needs to explain the basics over and over again in every video. He assumes minimum knowledge of the audience in order to gain as much viewership as possible.

    • aGps44
      aGps44 2 місяці тому

      @Calix and that is enough.

    • TheSteveMeister
      TheSteveMeister 2 місяці тому

      No, it just means you aren't very smart. Him having to explaining it to a child only means your brain is equal to a child's brain.

  • Naazfesn shopping
    Naazfesn shopping Місяць тому

    This is the smartest channel on the entire internet.Keep up the good work.Thank you for making it, and for helping me understand.

  • Akshay Patil
    Akshay Patil Місяць тому

    mind-blowing 🤯. this is the first time I have come across explanation that is related with practical application and so much easy ( compare to others on internet not literally 😅) to visualize and understand. hats-off.

  • Shadowstormz
    Shadowstormz Місяць тому +2

    This is the best video that I’ve seen on this channel yet! Thank you for putting the time and research together to make this video! ❤

  • vishsagi2011
    vishsagi2011 7 днів тому

    So we are decrypting by using positional patterns. Interesting. Quantum computers expedite the pattern recognition. Very cool. You know I was wondering on the lattices part . If dimensionality increases the complexity of nailing the position of an object I wonder that we move from 3Dto 5D to 7D is it harder to see people physically? I know I know all that isn’t science but I have heard so many alternative spiritualists talk about this I have to wonder. Great video thank you ❤ Harry Potter’s invisibility cloak 😂