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Why China is losing the microchip war

  • Опубліковано 6 лют 2023
  • And why the US and China are fighting over silicon in the first place.
    Subscribe and turn on notifications 🔔 so you don't miss any videos: goo.gl/0bsAjO
    In October 2022, the Biden administration placed a large-scale ban on the sale of advanced semiconductor chips to China. They also implemented a series of other rules that prevents China from making these chips on their own. These chips are used in everyday technology, like our mobile phones and computers. They’re also crucial to military and intelligence systems, which is one of the main reasons they're at the center of a feud between the United States and China.
    Microchips were first invented in the US in the 1950s, after which their use rapidly expanded worldwide. Since then, the supply chain for these chips has grown and spread to include countries in Europe and Asia. And while some countries have caught up to the US's edge in making these advanced chips, China still falls far behind despite multiple attempts to gain an advantage.
    Watch the latest episode of Vox Atlas to understand why China is losing a new cold war with the US over microchips.
    Sources and further reading:
    We found this book written by Chris Miller very helpful for understanding the history of chip development in the US and the foreign policy behind its competition and feud with China:
    Chip War: The Fight for the World's Most Critical Technology
    This book gave us great context on China’s efforts to acquire foreign technology:
    Chinese Industrial Espionage by Anna Puglisi
    Articles like this by Chien-Huei Wu helped us learn more about how much the US replies on east asian countries for successful technology:
    Reporting by Bloomberg helped us understand major IP theft cases related to semiconductor chips:
    An excellent report for more detail:
    Gregory Allen, CSIS www.csis.org/analysis/choking...
    Make sure you never miss behind the scenes content in the Vox Video newsletter, sign up here: vox.com/video-newsletter
    Vox.com is a news website that helps you cut through the noise and understand what's really driving the events in the headlines. Check out www.vox.com
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  • rolf ski
    rolf ski Місяць тому +7453

    I'm always surprised how relatively unknown a company like ASML is to the larger audience. It has a unique key strategic position in the world that no other company has. You don't often see that and it represents both a strength and a weakness for the free western world.

    • Kelvin C
      Kelvin C 9 днів тому

      ASML is unknown to you but it’s WELL KNOWN in the Chinese community. Its the industry difference s led to ignorance of certain aspects

    • No name 791
      No name 791 16 днів тому

      @John Doe free by restricting and destroying enemy, yeah

    • No name 791
      No name 791 16 днів тому

      @Frank but risc mass produced when

      INDIA SUPER CLEAN 🇮🇳 25 днів тому


    • M A
      M A Місяць тому

      @AntMaster True, even the logistics are a nightmare. Transporting the machines manufactured by ASML requires several cargo flights.

  • Graham Flower
    Graham Flower Місяць тому +776

    As a person who has spent 35 years in silicon valley's chip industry, while this video has many things right it also misses many pieces of the puzzle. Labor cost is not the primary reason chip manufacturing moved offshore. A huge factor was that chip fabs are extremely expensive and capital for building them was very expensive in the USA in the 80s when this trend really ramped up. The inflation of the 70s was a mighty contributor to that. Yes, it is true that the south Korean and Taiwanese governments were very supportive of having their engineering students pursue graduate education in the USA and such students often dominated the Semiconductor section of American Graduate schools from at least the late 1970s. In my grad school 20 of 23 Research Assistants in Semiconductor physics were from either Taiwan or S. Korea. only 2 were Americans. Taiwan and S. Korea saw the strategic value while American politicians didnt distinguish between potato chips and semiconductor chips as one politico explicitly stated.

    • Redd Hong
      Redd Hong 4 дні тому

      @Andrew Young no not in mainland China... the students in mainland would rather choose computer science not EE. software could make much more money than hardware in China... not like the island of Taiwan, the EE ppl could get better paid than others

    • Janek Chmielewski
      Janek Chmielewski 10 днів тому

      Why tsmc is even listening to us gov in the first place, it's not like us has any power over them, it's more reversa since tsmc dictates who has power for ai

    • Janek Chmielewski
      Janek Chmielewski 10 днів тому

      My question is, how exactly does us ban work on companies located in Denmark and Taiwan

    • Graham Flower
      Graham Flower 12 днів тому

      @machaineà Hi Yes, We took advantage of Much lower capital costs in Taiwan and Korea to turn the tables on Japan. However, the capital cost difference is much more important than the labor cost advantage and was the driver. A restaurant often has 70% of its costs in labor, an auto plant might be 45%, in semiconductor manufacturing it was 10%. The cost is in the building, special equipment and building specifics. An important part of the equation was that by separating fab from the rest of the business it released a tremendous amount of creativity in design that was a very important part of recapturing market share.
      All developing nations start with manufacturing and low cost labor. If a country has a specific advantage in many engineers and low cost labor as was the case in Taiwan and S. Korea it is not exploitation to use their local advantages. As their labor rates increase and their economies diversify they may and have moved up the food chain and reach middle income status. Most nations fail to move above middle income status to high income status, only about 15 of 108 countries that have reached this level have managed to do this. Taiwan and S. Korea are two that have and their standards of living now exceed those of many European countries. One important factor was that these countries developed highly educated workforces over a range of expertise. They are much better positioned for the future than their European counterparts who are roadkill in technology. Only the threat of takeover by the big red machine threatens this.

    • Vera Mae
      Vera Mae 12 днів тому

      I would only add "... while American Republican politicians ..."
      President Clinton tried to add address this issue but the Republicans were damed and determined that no Democratic President be able to do anything to helpful.

  • Bobby Tan
    Bobby Tan Місяць тому +2036

    The production of this is fantastic and really shows the pressures that both countries face. Great job by the production team.

    • Unknown Number
      Unknown Number 8 днів тому


    • Zach
      Zach Місяць тому +4

      @Bhaskar Mehra if the y-axis is exponentially scaled, a straight line represents exponential growth. It’s not a “weird scale” and it is used often

  • Fred S
    Fred S Місяць тому +586

    As someone living in Taiwan, I can safely say, our chip manufacturing is one of the main reasons as to why China and US has not gone to full blown war. The stakes are just too high if we were to be destroyed in between.

    • Aviator Sound
      Aviator Sound 3 дні тому

      Unfortunately, those alternatives to ASML is still years ahead to catching up to the company. Since there are a lot of company that produces machines for DUV but non are able to produce machines such as EUV or the current one in development by ASML or High NA.
      ASML got a head start years ago and if any of these company wishes to compete on the same level then they are going to need partnership with this company or have more resources to potentially reduce the timeframe.

    • Soshi
      Soshi 4 дні тому

      you have a fundamental misunderstanding of what Taiwan represents to Chinese national security. Chips are important, yes, but looking a how the island is geographically situated with the mainland shows why the issue exists before and beyond the importance of semiconductors.

  • Cobalt
    Cobalt Місяць тому +1131

    As someone who works as a scientific glassblower for the semiconductor industry, it's really interesting to see the geopolitical impact of some of the components we use.
    We just make the glass and send it off, without really knowing how the apparatuses are used. This is the first time I've seen one of our customers mentioned outside of work.

    • Jin Jun Liu
      Jin Jun Liu Місяць тому

      ​@Chibdibs First guy starts off saying that China's only mistake was in endangering US position of power. All the other countries teaming up with the US against China makes sense as they don't want to lose their position either and he ends by saying we'll see whoever wins the war.
      The other comments are about migrant Chinese and how views have been changing to more individualism and less socialism

    • Chibdibs
      Chibdibs Місяць тому +1

      Really wish I knew what they were saying. Google translate is not doing me any favors.

  • Notez 123
    Notez 123 Місяць тому +273

    Actually, before ASML became the exclusive supplier of advanced lithography machines, Canon and Nikon held significant market share. For quite a few years Japan and China had a fairly good economic relationship, and the Japanese companies assisted China in building their own lithography machines. China actually managed to put together machines capable of 90nm nodes by SMEE, though I don't think it's actually certified for production use yet. However, both the US and Japanese government had noticed this and are vowing to put a stop to it, making any advancements by SMEE very challenging.


      ​@SFPhilo. Lol sure.

    • ashchbkv
      ashchbkv 24 дні тому +1

      "making any advancements by SMEE very challenging" don't you love capitalism? if humanity didn't have all these trade secrets (nationalism & capitalism) and patent system we would be so much better when we work together and everyone has access to all knowledge to improve

      INDIA SUPER CLEAN 🇮🇳 25 днів тому +1


    • lenu
      lenu Місяць тому

      @SFPhiloInternational relations are always changing

    • SFPhilo
      SFPhilo Місяць тому

      There's also a small matter of the Senkaku Islands that traditionally belong to Japan, but the Chinese claim is theirs. Every time their Coast Guards meet up the Chinese get all riled up and burning Japanese flags or smashing up Chinese owned Japanese restaurants.

  • grpl
    grpl Місяць тому +4617

    Some extra info: Zeiss, a german company that produces lenses is also the only company with the most advanced lenses which asml uses for their machines.

    • JuriK
      JuriK 5 днів тому

      @D.O.G you sound like the amish people.

    • D.O.G
      D.O.G 5 днів тому

      @JuriKcenturies ! I ride on my donkey to work and we dry the corn and the chilies on the fast lane - because there are no cars !

    • JuriK
      JuriK 5 днів тому

      germany is backwarded in IT sector. decades behind usa, south korea, taiwan.

    • D.O.G
      D.O.G 9 днів тому

      @Elaine Munro Germany and the Netherlands are allies - they would never go to war

    • Reverse Terry
      Reverse Terry 29 днів тому

      @BlackPrince fusion does “work” it’s just not efficient.
      There have been some successful fusion experiments in laboratories, such as the Joint European Torus (JET) in the UK, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) in the US, and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), currently under construction in France. These experiments have shown that fusion is possible and can produce energy, but we are still working on developing practical fusion reactors that can produce more energy than they consume.

  • Mike Kleanthous
    Mike Kleanthous Місяць тому +211

    This is the sickest most informative ten minutes of my six academic years in medical school. Vox, you’ve outdone yourselves 💪🏼

      INDIA SUPER CLEAN 🇮🇳 25 днів тому


    • LabGecko
      LabGecko Місяць тому

      @Jorge Madrazzo this was pretty informative, and remember that one, this profession generally spends 8 years learning and two, this person cares enough to be concerned for how much education he got. This implies he studies on his own as well.

    • Mohamed Osman
      Mohamed Osman Місяць тому +1

      @Mike Kleanthous good for you that you have gone through medical school. That is a great accomplishment. I still find it difficult to believe that there is no 10 minute time span you have learned more just impossible. With all the studying and the stress you have been through

    • Mike Kleanthous
      Mike Kleanthous Місяць тому +2

      The following does not apply to all of you. Who has been belittling you and causing you fears of incompetence and failure, as to project this onto me? I’ve researched dopamine, the other neurotransmitters you mentioned, and all fields of surgery, without a specialization as of now. The comment was not an hyperbole, the scale of implications and depth in time the video went to in 10 minutes, is the most of any lecture I saw for ten minutes, and delivered so much on the subject. I spent more than a thousand 10-minutes chunks of studying. So back to my question, who has been belittling you and causing you fears of incompetence and failure, as to project this onto me?

    • E R
      E R Місяць тому +2

      People getting mad to an hyperbole.

  • Shu Ying Chua
    Shu Ying Chua Місяць тому +8

    Great video. It enlightened me to the reasons behind the increase of taxes that the US had implemented and why they were going after so many China tech companies.

  • TimeBucks
    TimeBucks Місяць тому +716

    This was an absolute great video

      INDIA SUPER CLEAN 🇮🇳 25 днів тому


    • Amit Kumar
      Amit Kumar Місяць тому

      Very nice

    • Md Shahabul Islam
      Md Shahabul Islam Місяць тому


    • Md Shahabul Islam
      Md Shahabul Islam Місяць тому

      Very nice 👍👍👍

    • Morella Továr
      Morella Továr Місяць тому +1


  • James Rogers
    James Rogers Місяць тому +73

    One of the other key points as to why the US is so protective is their understanding of Chinese technological development. China doesn’t have the same innovation priorities that the US does so their ability to grow organically is impaired. However they have remarkable abilities in breaking down, analyzing, and replicating preexisting components and tech. Thus getting blueprints or samples of cutting edge technology can enable them to catapult the the forefront.

    • John Liang
      John Liang 9 днів тому

      @D.O.G Yes, stealing something that the US does not have.

    • D.O.G
      D.O.G 9 днів тому

      @Sweetie Jason international law for instance 😂

  • Pratick
    Pratick Місяць тому +3261

    Every now and then Vox just makes me fall in love with this world and its geopolitics, loved it

    • cheo a
      cheo a Місяць тому


    • Internet Censure
      Internet Censure Місяць тому

      *Top 10 Key Market Players in Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment*
      Tokyo Electron limited (Japan)
      LAM research corporation (US)
      ASML (Netherlands)
      Applied Materials, Inc. ( US)
      KLA Corporation (US)
      SCREEN Holdings Co., Ltd. ( Japan)
      Teradyne US)
      Advantest (Japan)
      Hitachi High-Tech Corporation (Japan)
      Plasma-Therm (US)

    • Internet Censure
      Internet Censure Місяць тому

      "this world and its geopolitics" seen through the "vox" vision.😂

  • HoltzeHunter45
    HoltzeHunter45 Місяць тому +25

    I’ve been watching this happen and trying to stay up to date with this, you’ve done a pretty great job in showing how truly reliant and nearly immutable the world is on this supply chain, and the problems ahead

  • NPC#758
    NPC#758 Місяць тому +51

    Great video. You managed to breakdown the complexity of this whole situation into easy to understand pieces for all.

  • A.B
    A.B Місяць тому +24

    Enjoyed every minute of watching this and learned a whole LOT. Thanks Vox

  • Wander Van
    Wander Van Місяць тому +18

    I wrote my thesis on this very topic about 1 1/2 years ago and it is always great to see this topic get brought up more and more

  • The Bob
    The Bob Місяць тому +6

    TSMC has been perfectly described as the most important company most people have never heard of.

    • 369 Tayaholic
      369 Tayaholic 27 днів тому +2

      For modern time it is for sure

    • The Bob
      The Bob Місяць тому

      @tooltalk Depends on how you define recently, 1992 is when they we're solidified as the world's top chip manufacturer and 82 is when they were founded.

    • tooltalk
      tooltalk Місяць тому

      That's b/c they weren't really that important until very recently. The chip business is fairly dynamic -- there was a time when Intel mattered so much, but it's so behind now.

    • The Bob
      The Bob Місяць тому +1

      @Rai2M Them to i was referring to the Taiwan company that makes 90% of all advanced semiconductors and 60% of most other kinds.

  • SideNote
    SideNote Місяць тому +2585

    Brilliant video. Thanks.
    While it may seem like the "chip war" is between China and the US allies, it's actually pretty 2 dimensional. US allies (Japan, South Korea and Taiwan) too are competing among themselves to out-pace each other. No one wants to end up in a situation where it can be casted out easily. While TSMC (of Taiwan) is building new plants in both America and Japan, their foreign investments do not involve most advanced technology, keeping the US' incentive to defend Taiwan from China intact.
    Both Japan and South Korea has announced their own set of lucrative subsidies to poach companies from each other countries. They are also worried about losing market share in China and China hampering the supply chain of raw materials if it feels cornered.
    This is just the beginning.

    • 리드
      리드 13 днів тому

      ​@朴俊光Park joon Kwang And china's economic growth rate is declining

    • 리드
      리드 13 днів тому

      ​@朴俊光Park joon Kwang China's nuclear bomb and space station technology are all developed thanks to russia 😂
      No country can help china this time because russia is also a country that lacks semiconductor technology

  • Sam VC (UPC)
    Sam VC (UPC) Місяць тому +76

    very good high level overview of the situation! There are alternative technologies in play but this is a really good starting point for anyone interested in the geopolitics of chips.

  • KC T
    KC T Місяць тому +24

    This is the one of the best videos I have seen recently on the chip war, easy to understand with in-depth analysis. Thank you.

  • Alla Udin
    Alla Udin Місяць тому +40

    An insightful examination of the geopolitics surrounding the semiconductor industry. The concept of "silicon sovereignty" sheds light on the growing trend of techno-nationalism in the industry. The power dynamics between different players in the digiconomy and the geopolitical landscape are having a significant impact on the microchip landscape. It is crucial that we understand these intricacies in order to fully grasp the implications of this important topic.

  • Erik Stekelenburg
    Erik Stekelenburg Місяць тому +14

    I used to work with both companies even before they were as big as these days. The Taiwanese and the Dutch holds the key in todays high tech and should use their strength to stop all the madness going on these days.

    • Spike Two
      Spike Two 29 днів тому

      @Mujtaba Alam you mean failure if uncle sam to find the WoMD?

    • S D
      S D Місяць тому

      @Mujtaba Alam not sure how you make the direct connection between chips and south china sea? well, maybe you work for one of the thinktanks in dc.

    • Mujtaba Alam
      Mujtaba Alam Місяць тому +3

      You mean China's expansion efforts in the south china sea?

  • immaBAOS
    immaBAOS Місяць тому +2

    Greatly explained! Issue has been going on for years and this is the first time im seeing good coverage of underlying geopolitical issues

  • Cune Lastavica
    Cune Lastavica Місяць тому +1

    Loved this video, extremely well maid, informative and entertaining! Great work.

  • Ryangg
    Ryangg Місяць тому +8

    You forgot to mention we are reaching the physical limitations when it comes to chip design, we are reaching the physical limitation on semiconductor technology and would need some breakthrough in physics to go even smaller

  • gkeic
    gkeic Місяць тому +21

    Robert Noyce received the patent for the first computer chip and planar chip technology. It is shocking that this very important fact is ignored. Also, Intel was co-founded by Robert Noyce and Bob Moore.

    • gkeic
      gkeic Місяць тому +1

      @purplerain thanks for that correction

    • purplerain
      purplerain Місяць тому +3

      Gordon* Moore

  • highsidingtothemoon
    highsidingtothemoon Місяць тому +8

    What most people do not realize about high performance chips, is that the circuits are etched by acid, and the more compact the circuits are (higher density), the stronger the acid has to be to etch the circuits. This leads to a higher chance of explosive results as the transistor size decreases. This is why there are fewer HP chip makers and if a production line burns up, it has a ripple effect in the supply chain. the entire 2020 shortage of microprocessors (still) impacting the car industry is an example.

    • Padraic Ley
      Padraic Ley Місяць тому

      No etched by acid and no explosive results in making the chip. Light and coating are used in chip production. Low power and in a clean room. To do a 5-nanometer circuit line only takes a little energy to print it.

    • P G
      P G Місяць тому

      There are a lot of chemicals used for manufacturing. Any kind of acid is no more dangerous than others. Also chip etching is more about building it layer by layer like a Lego model.

  • David Sandler
    David Sandler Місяць тому +37

    Good information but you sort of glosses over why companies started outsourcing to TSMC - it was about a change of business model from companies designing and building chips to just designing and outsourcing the building to a third party. These third parties could scale operations much better. Also they had heavy subsidies from the government of Taiwan - a point that is really important to note.

    • David Sandler
      David Sandler Місяць тому +2

      @QQ2019 "Lawmakers within the island nation have reportedly passed additional legislation that will allow local chipmakers to turn up to 25 percent of their annual research and development expenses into tax credits in a move said to be aimed at ensuring Taiwan's continued leadership in semiconductor manufacturing." - TSMC spends something like $20-30B in R&D so yes, there are massive tax credits which are subsidies

    • ms178
      ms178 Місяць тому +1

      The change of business model was the outcome, but not the reason why companies started outsourcing to TSMC. The reason was simple, it was about driving down costs as most companies simply lacked the ressources to invest into their own fabs and each new node. Having a neutral manufacturing company that specializes in this task and works with all design companies maximizes the utilitzation of the fabs and spreads their large sunken costs over many shoulders, driving down the costs for all. On the other hand, there are some downsides to this approach which get covered in the video, e.g. geopolitics and the hard dependancy on a single supplier that are a strategic risk for the design companies. We have seen that in the pandemic, too. TSMC raised prises and was not able to keep up with demand while international trade got more restrictive over night.

    • QQ2019
      QQ2019 Місяць тому +3

      That's NOT true! Subsidies from the government to TSMC only in very early days when TSMC got established.

  • Your Debankit toys
    Your Debankit toys Місяць тому +1

    Always love the videos in this series. Excellent job again!

  • SR official
    SR official Місяць тому +6

    Great video. You managed to breakdown the complexity of this whole situation🙂🙂

  • Bob Chandra
    Bob Chandra Місяць тому +4

    Brilliant, very well done. Explained succinctly the key players, the potential theft that led to export controls.

  • AntMaster
    AntMaster Місяць тому +1823

    ASML is the most important company in the world most people have never heard of.

    • sirus312
      sirus312 Місяць тому


    • Internet Censure
      Internet Censure Місяць тому

      *Top 10 Key Market Players in Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment*
      Tokyo Electron limited (Japan)
      LAM Research Corporation (US)
      ASML (Netherlands)
      Applied Materials, Inc. ( US)
      KLA Corporation (US)
      SCREEN Holdings Co., Ltd. ( Japan)
      Teradyne US)
      Advantest (Japan)
      Hitachi High-Tech Corporation (Japan)
      Plasma-Therm (US)

    • Pi Tech
      Pi Tech Місяць тому

      ASML & TSMC & 3 US chip design software and equipment companies

    • Boris Sergijevic
      Boris Sergijevic Місяць тому

      This is not a war of technology, but an economy. Sure, making a 1nm chip is impressive, it will be achieved much faster by TSMC than China will do. But to make such chips cheap, consumer-available and sustainable, that's a whole new game. It's only a matter of a few years, how long China will achieve chips like 3nm, then all advantages of the Chinese economy will prevail to the benefit of China. I also like how, China is catching up playing alone when all others together try to beat her.

    • dj
      dj Місяць тому +1

      @Tiago Gomes no they couldn't. I have a new invention called a bicycle

  • Amilton davis
    Amilton davis Місяць тому +7

    This kind of videos are the reason why I subscribed to Vox. More of these please!

  • Lover gaming
    Lover gaming Місяць тому +2

    You manage to break down the complexity of the whole situation into parts that are easy for all to understand.good video 👍

  • ADR
    ADR Місяць тому +6

    This Cold War between the 2 is a major reason why no one should be reliant on either party when it comes to semi conductors. As an Indian, I’d very much like to use our technology brains and become self reliant on this front in the next 20 years.

    • 𓂀
      𓂀 Місяць тому +1

      @ADR china is a developed country that was supported by a superpower called ussr and china wasn't looted by the europeans like india was. also i never said that was a criteria it was just a example.

  • MosesNL
    MosesNL Місяць тому +23

    1:17 the things circled are the inputs and outputs which would connect to the pinouts or wires. the transistors are actually made of the middle parts where p-type and n-type doped silicon makes bridged connections based on the electron flow.

    • DrSchabab
      DrSchabab Місяць тому +1

      Yes! Also the chip that Biden is holding at 5:21 is nowhere near 114B transistors. The 114B they are refering to is most probably the m1 ultra, which is way larger than that chip, which looks like a small memory module.

    • Brian McMinn
      Brian McMinn Місяць тому +1

      Glad you pointed this out. I hope Vox sees this and corrects it.

  • A P
    A P Місяць тому +401

    Amazing video, now I've got a better understanding of why the USA is so openly willing to protect Taiwan in the case if China decides to make a move.

    • Robert Wright
      Robert Wright 9 днів тому

      @D.O.G why would it be? Realpolitik. US has limited resources and various interests, thus we don’t have the resources to stop every moral wrong, we must prioritize especially when facing a superpower like China

    • D.O.G
      D.O.G 9 днів тому +1

      Oh you mean protecting another country from China being occupied after Tibet is not a reason enough ?

  • FH Rabbi
    FH Rabbi Місяць тому +5

    Excellent production team to export a highly informative video to show mass people what exactly going on between these two giants.

  • Obed Esquivel-Pickett
    Obed Esquivel-Pickett Місяць тому +4

    So well made, simple and very informative. thank you!

  • Ev-Geniy Serebryakov
    Ev-Geniy Serebryakov Місяць тому +3

    The video a little bit simplified the chip industry. It's much more complicated. Taiwan and some other countries, they own only production, manufacturing chip plants, whereas US and some European countries, they have technologies and design.

  • hugh mungus
    hugh mungus Місяць тому +237

    The chip war is having alot of negative consequences for the US as well. China being the largest consumer of chips being cut off means a disastrous hit to US chipmaker profits resulting in mass layoffs and less money for R&D. Combined with the impending end of Moores law due to chip features becoming literally smaller than atoms. all indications are that china will catch up.
    This isn't like the race between the USSR because the USSR never had a commercial tech sector and wasn't the global exporter of electronics. The sheer demand within china for semiconductors means chinese chip companies are set to grow rapidly due to a captive market imposed by the US.
    Wheras the US will have to subsidies its chip sector for the hundreds of billions in lost sales.

    • 宋千秋
      宋千秋 Місяць тому

      @zzfunny soul 哈哈哈哈

    • hugh mungus
      hugh mungus Місяць тому

      @Viva Las Vegas china already does alot of that.

  • Employee Of The Month
    Employee Of The Month 12 днів тому +1

    Because of this amazing video, I went out and bought the book "Chip Wars." It's an excellent read.

  • N D
    N D Місяць тому +545

    a lot of western optoelectronic companies have moved away from China after the mid 2000's because of IP infringement. Unlike complex high-density CPU's on silicon, optoelectronic tech involves a lot of III-V semiconductor epitaxy and bespoke fab processes - once those are know it's a lot easier to replicate and sell them for a significantly cheaper price.
    In the UK a lot these industries were lost over the last couple decades. With regards to warfare we're constantly on the cusp of losing our steel industry. I guess paying profits to shareholders is a lot more important than state security.

    • Internet Censure
      Internet Censure Місяць тому

      *Top 10 Key Market Players in Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment*
      Tokyo Electron limited (Japan)
      LAM Research Corporation (US)
      ASML (Netherlands)
      Applied Materials, Inc. ( US)
      KLA Corporation (US)
      SCREEN Holdings Co., Ltd. ( Japan)
      Teradyne US)
      Advantest (Japan)
      Hitachi High-Tech Corporation (Japan)
      Plasma-Therm (US)

    • x x
      x x Місяць тому +2

      Maybe some people are so used to them making money in other’s market and keeping per-unit high profit to themselves, as is done in Africa or other underdeveloped countries.
      Many cooperations between IP owners and China companies sometimes local government, are stated upfront clearly that in exchange of the access to China market, these IP owners agree to share more tech details so China people can learn and improve. Latest example is Tesla in Shanghai, China. China gets the tech, Tesla gets cheap land, labor and high quality of craft. Pure business.
      Ultimately IP owners are making more money. And high tech is brought to more population at low cost to elevate the living standard of the entire world, when IP owners come and say: China steals (and I can make more - No, you cannot).
      The entire microchip market today won’t exist if China didn’t participate. ASML, TSMC and the US investors behind them will lose money without China.
      It can be this way for another few decades when each contributes together, but US chooses to weaponize microchip and China has to develop its own.

    • mynameisjoejeans
      mynameisjoejeans Місяць тому

      @William Robinson oh yeah sorry, edited it

    • Jay Sess
      Jay Sess Місяць тому

      @mynameisjoejeans I see, thank you!

    • William Robinson
      William Robinson Місяць тому +1

      @mynameisjoejeans I think youre replying to the wrong person mate lol

  • Zyldy 🇹🇼
    Zyldy 🇹🇼 Місяць тому +76

    As a person from Taiwan, never thought TSMC was that big

    • tooltalk
      tooltalk Місяць тому

      @Sarawak's Sky Dweller : yeah, that's b/c they weren't that important until a few years ago. Other companies will come along replace them in importance in a few years.

    • Internet Censure
      Internet Censure Місяць тому

      *Top 10 Key Market Players in Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment*
      Tokyo Electron limited (Japan)
      LAM Research Corporation (US)
      ASML (Netherlands)
      Applied Materials, Inc. ( US)
      KLA Corporation (US)
      SCREEN Holdings Co., Ltd. ( Japan)
      Teradyne (US)
      Advantest (Japan)
      Hitachi High-Tech Corporation (Japan)
      Plasma-Therm (US)

    • Wang Herr
      Wang Herr Місяць тому


    • VIBaJ 16
      VIBaJ 16 Місяць тому

      @baodeus1 The only reason to live is to get things you want, not just what you need, unless you truly enjoy just having what you need, which is very few people, if any. You can't change your wants, which forces everyone to suffer at least a little, more so if their more poor, which is why "money can't buy happiness" is wrong in 99% of cases.

    • baodeus1
      baodeus1 Місяць тому

      @VIBaJ 16
      There is need and there is want. It doesn't take a lot to meet your need (if I'm hungry, I just need to eat something and I'm satisfied). Wants comes from need, just more of it (I don't just want to eat, I want to eat excessively, I want to eat only certain things, I want Michelin star). Then if I don't get what I want, I suffer. It is worth it to suffer over things that you don't need (want in this case)?

  • Zachary Davis
    Zachary Davis Місяць тому +2

    Thanks for spending the time to create and share this content awareness

  • Aman Agarwal
    Aman Agarwal Місяць тому +6

    Why don't we see content like this more often from Vox... Brilliant, absolutely brilliant 👍

  • Cam Tabor
    Cam Tabor Місяць тому +26

    Did anyone else notice that they circled the I/O of the semiconductors and not the transistors themselves? The transistors are in the middle.

    • Yu Zou
      Yu Zou Місяць тому

      Yes, can tell the video maker doesn’t have much technical background

    • Leandro G
      Leandro G Місяць тому +2

      @Dylan J *facepalm*
      It's a logarithmic scale, as can be seen by the Y axis markings.

    • Dylan J
      Dylan J Місяць тому +2

      They also showed Moore's law using a linear graph..

  • Jonah
    Jonah Місяць тому +1

    everyone stands up for their own interest. For China and all other developing countries the current intellectual properties are not quite fair. So it's more of a struggle for market and technology as well as the interpretation of rules.

  • genuinenness befitting
    genuinenness befitting Місяць тому +180

    Before 2004, the United States led the world in semiconductor technology, and foundries had to pay IBM's technology license fees. But in 2004, TSMC took the lead in developing 0.13-micron copper process technology ahead of IBM, ushering in the era of Taiwan's semiconductor technology leading the world. In 2014, IBM withdrew from the foundry business, and TSMC considered buying IBM's fab in New York State. However, even though IBM's technology has lagged behind Taiwan by a decade, the US Department of Defense and IBM, still worried about the already fading American technology influx into Taiwan, rejected the deal. High-tech semiconductor technology is the result of Taiwan's efforts to develop, and now the United States claims to "bring back" semiconductor production to the United States.

    • D.O.G
      D.O.G 9 днів тому

      As long as the Chinese aren’t getting it I am ok with it

    • Herman Peters
      Herman Peters 20 днів тому

      TSMC was grounded by Philips (NXP) and the Taiwanese. Philips sold its part.

    • Herman Peters
      Herman Peters 20 днів тому

      do you know who grounded TSMC? Right Philips from the Netherlands (now NXP). with the Taiwanese.

    • 2020
      2020 Місяць тому


  • Bastien Adrien
    Bastien Adrien Місяць тому +1

    Never had I understood the chip issue in just 10 min that clearly
    awesome production Vox - thanks for that

  • Tim (Dipayan) Mazumdar
    Tim (Dipayan) Mazumdar Місяць тому

    Its not three anymore - the SW for making Chips is Synopsys (SNPS), Cadence (CDNS) and MENtor ( which is now part of Siemens. There are actually
    a lot of smaller IC design tool vendors from time to time like Magma .

  • Y Ma
    Y Ma Місяць тому +9

    One thing that was missed in this very well made video is the semiconductor materials (in addition to design software, equipment, manufacturing, and assembly), an area that Japan dominates. When Korea and Japan was not in good terms Japan needed only stop selling photo-resist, a key material used in the lithography step, to Samsung, for Korea to bow.

    • valar morghulis
      valar morghulis Місяць тому +2

      and Abe failed a big time. Korea within a year started manufacturing the material

  • Tammy Hill
    Tammy Hill Місяць тому +17

    Investing is a stepping stone to success ... you are absolutely right expecting the government to provide a huge waste of time.

    • Noah Robinson
      Noah Robinson Місяць тому

      How can I get started earning from bitcoin

    • Adam Stanley
      Adam Stanley Місяць тому

      choosing to invest in crypto is the best decision anyone can make with the right approach, it works

    • Marie Woods
      Marie Woods Місяць тому

      Incredible man, I have made so much money this quarter I finally quit my job and I have started trading full time

    • Donald Rios
      Donald Rios Місяць тому

      Most time having knowledge or insight about a particular activity can as well be a pleasing exercise. I can boldly say that forex and crypto trading is one of the profitable money exchange with services that elevates investors and Finicial status.

    • Philip Boyd
      Philip Boyd Місяць тому

      ✌️ That's ✌️ her ✌️ IG ✌️ handle ✌️

  • ٴ
    ٴ Місяць тому +71

    imagine how much advanced our civilization could be if everyone worked together

    • Casseiopeia
      Casseiopeia Місяць тому +1

      This will always be a lesson to the Western world investors or profiters never ever ever trust authocrat regime Russia China in some case though they can change policies for trade partnership this countries will always envy or be belligerent towards West better just leave them alone

    • Meowky Fairy tale
      Meowky Fairy tale Місяць тому

      Too bad human are destinyed to destroy each other, even before the Aliens reach us. All they can find will be ruins of human civilization on earth.

    • ultra21
      ultra21 Місяць тому +4

      @Yarxk Peaceful and wealthy environment is a result of strength and emerging victorious in wars. US victory in WWII and its military power today allows it to maintain its status as a wealthy country.

    • Yarxk
      Yarxk Місяць тому +5

      This is a wrong statement, most valuable inventions and findings come from peaceful and wealthy environment not in a chaotic society.

  • Arasan Mark
    Arasan Mark Місяць тому +1

    I LOVED the production of this video. Simply superb. You keep pushing the barriers Vox, you are at the forefront of Moore’s Law.

  • c1ph3rpunk
    c1ph3rpunk Місяць тому +1

    You’ve missed one important part: industry’s efforts to thwart intellectual property theft by foreign adversaries. They’ve increased, quite a bit.

  • Will Ko
    Will Ko Місяць тому +1

    VOX's videos keep getting better :)

  • DevBravo
    DevBravo Місяць тому +155

    The Taiwan story is something people really need to pay more attention to. Learned a lot in this one.

    • 叛逆的慣老闆
      叛逆的慣老闆 Місяць тому +1

      @Sam McClaim Yeah, like less than 2%, and yet more than 60% of people in Taiwan recognize themselves as only Taiwanese not chinese at all how do you say about that?

    • SickAssApe
      SickAssApe Місяць тому +1

      @Sam McClaim Some see themselves as Japanese too, what is your point?

    • Sam McClaim
      Sam McClaim Місяць тому

      @SickAssApe Taiwanese see themselves as Chinese so what's the problem. Why fall into "divide and rule" trap.

  • abcdefghijklmno29753
    abcdefghijklmno29753 Місяць тому +2

    Very, very beautifully illustrated. This is a world we don't want to live in, though. We'll be looking back at the optimism, cooperation and, consequentially, wealth created in the 90s and beyond as a golden age of human development.

  • Vertice 27
    Vertice 27 Місяць тому +2

    The chip industry is literally central to every bit of invention and innovation for the western world. No one can compete with Europe South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, UK and the US on this it would literally be impossible

  • Harsh Singh
    Harsh Singh Місяць тому +1

    How beautifully crafted this video is. "Pure Informative Art"..... Thanks Vox

  • mike dawson
    mike dawson Місяць тому +5

    Excellent review of the Chip industry. Good research and presentation.

  • Cam Brown
    Cam Brown Місяць тому +1

    What is circled at 1:13 as "transistors" are not transistors! They are the metal pin contacts. The transistors are in the center of the wafer, formed by the metal layers and polysilicon (slightly darker blue) region.

  • Drax Snider
    Drax Snider Місяць тому +25

    this is not a chip war, this is an attack by the current superpower to remain in power and maintain chockpoints on its enemy

    • Robert Liu
      Robert Liu Місяць тому +3

      the US picked a field that they could still win and declarer a war on it.

  • TruExMamba24
    TruExMamba24 Місяць тому +3

    IMO, asml, tsmc, Amd, and Nvidia are all really great companies to invest in. They're literally in most tech out there. Underrated stocks still imo. Got lucky and bought them when they were low, so easier for me to tout about them. But I still believe in them so I recommend them long term. Not financial advice, just my opinion haha.

  • भविष्य से रोबोट पुलिस वाले

    If you ever see a western UAclipsr making a video about humiliating and bashing China over chip technology, you know the Chinese are gaining the upper hand. 🇨🇳 🔥🐉🔥

  • gilang ignas raharjo
    gilang ignas raharjo Місяць тому +2

    Semiconductor is something that better be open and not monopolized by a single company

  • Larry Sherk
    Larry Sherk Місяць тому +10

    Everything we (the United States) does to try to restrict Chinese development merely supplies the motivation and inspiration for the Chinese to build their own, but better. Our fear of losing our number one spot, which has actually already happened, leads us into the nastiest kind of vicious non-cooperation. In our new world coming, we will focus on the welfare of the people and cooperation to that end. Money and power necessarily doom us.

  • J A
    J A Місяць тому +198

    The chip war is not in the narrow sense about security. It is about the United States maintaining its technological superiority over a rival which in turn affects its economic and military supremacy.

    • Internet Censure
      Internet Censure Місяць тому

      Russia lags well behind the USA in electronics but still retains the world's second most powerful military machine title, China doesn't even come close to.
      Missing the forest for the tree.😂

    • Jackkalpakian
      Jackkalpakian Місяць тому

      @al bundy Poverty and war equal protest, domestic instability and anti government hate, get used to it.

    • al bundy
      al bundy Місяць тому +2

      military supremacy = security

    • Jackkalpakian
      Jackkalpakian Місяць тому

      @James Carter Of course, lol.

  • Abdur Rashid
    Abdur Rashid Місяць тому +1

    This is what many of us looking for. Really informative & helpful...thanks for sharing such as awesome stuff...... 👍

  • gharbi sedky
    gharbi sedky Місяць тому +1

    Magnifique, la concurrence actuellement est axée sur le développement de chipsets pour l'AI et le 5G . Merci pour cette vidéo explicative

  • intraflow
    intraflow Місяць тому +28

    This is truly one of the more China moments of all time

    • Lars Höfler
      Lars Höfler Місяць тому +5

      China: *exists*
      Americans: I take that personally

    • DEIZEI
      DEIZEI Місяць тому


    • rami shnishah
      rami shnishah Місяць тому +2

      to deep botom

  • Piotr Masełkowski
    Piotr Masełkowski Місяць тому +3

    The chip supply chain is very fragile. Years ago there was an earthquake in Taiwan, the prices of RAM memory jumped tenfold

  • sodazman
    sodazman Місяць тому +5

    China has already made tremendous strides towards its own EUV machine capable of sub 10nm. ASML has also resumed selling EUV machines again to China and many other countries.

    • Vito Corleone
      Vito Corleone Місяць тому

      Trump wasn't perfect bad was great on this stuff. He'd point out that the Netherlands still isn't even paying it's NATO obligations and say he'd pull us out over this as he'd wanted to do with the Germans and the gas deal he was absolutely right about and the Germans were laughing then remember? The entire Ukraine problem would have been avoided had they listened to him.

  • Lisa D'souza
    Lisa D'souza Місяць тому +32

    You can ban them from advance chips but you can't stop them from development. Sooner or later they will have to develop because it's also matter survival for them as a country.

    • Loosey goosey
      Loosey goosey Місяць тому +2

      and? We want them to struggle. If it would have taken them 10 years before now it would take 15-20. Time is money and gives the US
      time to invest and R&D new tech to stay on top.

    • Rai2M
      Rai2M Місяць тому +1

      A lot of countries keep surviving w/o developing chips.

  • Nick Latino
    Nick Latino Місяць тому +2

    Very interesting video. One of Vox's best works

  • Editing
    Editing Місяць тому +2

    Seems like the competition over chips is very much ongoing, and the US relying on Taiwan so strongly is a pretty big source of weakness in its supply chain...

  • Front Row Views
    Front Row Views Місяць тому +3

    Not once did you mention that ASML is a fully Dutch company located near Eindhoven and thus the EU even holds the USA in a chokehold

    • tooltalk
      tooltalk Місяць тому

      it's important to remember that ASML has the 2nd largest R&D center in CT; light-source/laser R&D in San Diego (via its US subsidiary Cymer); and software R&D in Silicon Valley. The US DOE also provided funding abd basic research in the 90's. I think the fact that the US favored ASML over its Japanese competitors like Nikon and Canon also helped the company to stand out.

    • TheKnochenpolka
      TheKnochenpolka Місяць тому

      Many of ASML factories and research centers are located in the US though. Wilton, San Diego etc.

    • Tech Mull
      Tech Mull Місяць тому

      Perhaps the 'EU' likes to look in a mirror and flatter itself that it holds the US in a chokehold, but it really doesn't. The main customers for ASML are mentioned in the video, all US allies. If ASML were to step out of line, it would be a very painful mistake, and if they focused on China at any point, the Dutch would soon become aware of which side their bread is buttered. ASML is at the top of its game for sure, but the rules are written by the US.

    • silentsmurf
      silentsmurf Місяць тому

      It was obvious on the map though

  • Tiffany
    Tiffany Місяць тому +9

    I’m from Taiwan! So proud to hear TSMC mentioned in this video

    • cc
      cc Місяць тому


    • Ben Koskinen
      Ben Koskinen Місяць тому +3

      92 percent of advanced chips that is huge.

  • Lograv L
    Lograv L Місяць тому +2

    As someone who works as a chemical physicist for the mine engineering industry, it's amazing how china has intrusively adapt but eventually getting smoked-out incomprehensively.

  • ImZoid
    ImZoid Місяць тому +316

    I'm losing the chip war too. my brother got to the Doritos before I did :(

    • Laura Bowles
      Laura Bowles Місяць тому +2

      underrated comment

      GRIMSOBAD Місяць тому +8

      @VVerVVurm that would be risky, mom would sanction me and I’ll be forced to sign a treaty or do my homework

    • VVerVVurm
      VVerVVurm Місяць тому +10

      @GRIMSOBAD or .. if it is the little brother .. find his choke point xD

    • ON
      ON Місяць тому +2


  • Master Sonogashira
    Master Sonogashira Місяць тому +1

    I honestly think one side holding a technology is scary, no matter if it’s us or them. Like a wise man once said, nuclear weapon keeps us safe because both side have them

  • ScribblesOnNapkins
    ScribblesOnNapkins Місяць тому +1

    The circles you drew around the transistors at 1:15 are the bonding pads for the chip interconnect and not the transistors. Please fix this error.

  • Привет!
    Привет! Місяць тому +1

    За 10 минут вся история развития чипов 👍

  • 2000Cowboys
    2000Cowboys Місяць тому +1

    Chris Miller's book ( Chip War ) covers this very well also 👍

  • Itzcoatl
    Itzcoatl Місяць тому +1

    I like the fact people act this affects them in anyway shape or form, like wow the US being the dominant one surely will change your life👍

  • Carl Carlington
    Carl Carlington Місяць тому +198

    Even if China can gain influence over Taiwan that doesn’t mean dominance in chip manufacturing, as necessary software and machinery to produce such chips are only made in the us and Netherlands. The Chinese governments best move would be to invest significantly into paying software engineer graduates competitive rates that keeps them from wanting to move to the us or other countries

    • Ishtaara
      Ishtaara Місяць тому

      @ShadowThruNight Technological innovation has nothing to do with being able to "speak your mind". Your whole comment seems very one-dimensional and myopic.

    • Paul Bedichek
      Paul Bedichek Місяць тому

      poor job of both, they will be

    • Internet Censure
      Internet Censure Місяць тому

      *Top 10 Key Market Players in Semiconductor Manufacturing Equipment*
      Tokyo Electron limited (Japan)
      LAM Research Corporation (US)
      ASML (Netherlands)
      Applied Materials, Inc. ( US)
      KLA Corporation (US)
      SCREEN Holdings Co., Ltd. ( Japan)
      Teradyne US)
      Advantest (Japan)
      Hitachi High-Tech Corporation (Japan)
      Plasma-Therm (US)

  • That's it
    That's it Місяць тому +1

    We should seriously invest in diversifying supply chains around the world, not to benefit the few, but the many.

  • Jose Paez
    Jose Paez Місяць тому +1

    Thanks! I was missing this key part of the story to better understand the whole picture

  • Daniel Sturby
    Daniel Sturby Місяць тому +2

    Diamond Semiconductors are the rarest and most expensive of the four semiconductors. They sell for 25,000 credits in stores. They are dropped by very powerful enemies, like Enhanced Brutes.


    What a documentary VOX!
    Totally commendable 👌

  • DomBobomb
    DomBobomb Місяць тому +218

    Glad to see Vox getting back to these kinds of videos. Clearly an edit style highly inspired by Johnny Harris though ironically

    • Gin Alley
      Gin Alley Місяць тому +4

      @DomBobomb I'm growing suspicious too. This happened with the whole qatar/fifa scandal videos that were released like a week apart, after the world cup. But vox seems to cover areas johnny doesn't touch on so its still ok for me

  • Greg Gregson
    Greg Gregson Місяць тому +1

    Short term they will lose, but long term have now been incentivized to push forward with their own manufacturing for lower nodes. It would have been better not doing this and pulling the rug suddenly if needed, rather than provide this impetus.

  • Somewhat Blank Paper
    Somewhat Blank Paper Місяць тому +18

    The more ban on China, the better for them. It encourages them to develop their own tech. If anyone has read some news from CCP and actually been to China, their government has already acknowledged the danger of being dependent on US. As an example, Japan’s sudden economic collapse in the late 20th century would be mainly due to US involvement.
    China can literally self sustain without really caring about others whereas US still needs foreign exports and not to mention (exploitation of third world+ China) to sustain most of its material needs.
    At last, I’m not sure what tricks CCP has in its sleeves, and thus I won’t really comment on how much impact losing ASML impacts them.

    • Somewhat Blank Paper
      Somewhat Blank Paper Місяць тому

      @jigil jigil Since you are trying to disprove what I have said, show me all the peer-reviewed relevant data of what China's exports and imports consists of as well as the relevant data of what US, EU's exports and imports consist of.
      You should look at the statistics about China's factories for each product versus EU or US's the factories for each product.
      It gives a clearer insight about which country is more reliant on exports than which given that we know the essential needs consist of : food, sheltering, clothing, and electricity. So, we would look for any product related to those 4 factors, and which country/group of countries is more reliant than which within any of the 4 categories. Other items are optional.
      If you are unable to provide statistics that satisfy those criteria, it's a wise decision to stop discussing. Leave it or take it.

    • Lepi Doptera
      Lepi Doptera Місяць тому +1

      @Rosen Ryan It's worse than that. China can't even make decent "low end" chips like analog components. If they could, they would still have to dump them in low end markets basically near cost because nobody in the West would buy them. Japan found that out the hard way, even though they have decent product in that segment of the market.

    • Didier Duplantier
      Didier Duplantier Місяць тому +2

      It will take them years to develop their own tech and by the time they have something halfway decent, they will be waaaay behind the curve.
      People who steal other people’s ideas will always be behind

  • Cameron Porter
    Cameron Porter Місяць тому

    German company Zeiss is another vital step in the chain that provides ASML with the high precision lithography lenses needed to make lithography machines

  • yesyas
    yesyas Місяць тому +2

    Hi Vox it would be cool if you made a vid on operation paper clip because it’s a pretty interesting topic and many people are unaware of it

  • Physe
    Physe 29 днів тому

    Great sound design on top of a very informative video with great graphics!

  • eddiethedestroyer
    eddiethedestroyer Місяць тому +448

    Vox, please do something about your audio mixing so the music bed is not obscuring the vocals. This has become a common problem with much of your content. Otherwise, I love the work you do and the information you are providing.

    • Scott MacDonald
      Scott MacDonald Місяць тому +1

      @I'll be your monsterlmao almost all of the audio mixing industry is white guys, misapplied grievance

    • pr0ject25o1
      pr0ject25o1 Місяць тому

      Wait, there’s audio???

    • Joseph Kissel
      Joseph Kissel Місяць тому

      I would agree the music was prominent ... But I didn't have a problem with it and I'm sensitive to that. Was listening on good monitors though ...

    • Andrew Hiser
      Andrew Hiser Місяць тому +27

      @I'll be your monster This seems like a problematic line of thinking... I'm not sure how you could possibly know that the reason the current audio mixer/editor (not sure who would be in charge of this) was hired in place of someone more competent because of quotas. I don't think it's valid or helpful to make assumptions like this... That's all.

    • Euan Clelland
      Euan Clelland Місяць тому +2

      You need a hearing aid.

  • taz santiago
    taz santiago Місяць тому

    Although I already knew most of this information, I still like how you guys broke everything down I learned a few things good job👏🏼😂😂

  • yws
    yws Місяць тому +3

    Welp, you cannot say they are losing yet. Too early yet.
    They already have functioning 7nm chips from YTNC, it's a matter of time to see if they progress further.