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Why Going Faster-Than-Light Leads to Time Paradoxes

  • Опубліковано 29 бер 2023
  • Is faster-than-light (FTL) travel possible? In most discussions of this, we get hung up on the physics of particular ideas, such as wormholes or warp drives. But today, we take a more zoomed out approach that addresses all FTL propulsion - as well as FTL messaging. Because it turns out that they all allow for time travel. Join us today as we explore why this is so and the profound consequences that ensue.
    Written & presented by Prof David Kipping. Special thanks to Prof Matt Buckley for fact checking and his great blog article that inspired this video (www.physicsmatt.com/blog/2016/.... Please abide by our rule of courteous and respectful interactions with one another in the comments section.
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    ► Alcubierre, M., 1994, "The warp drive: hyper-fast travel within general relativity", Classical and Quantum Gravity, 11 L73: arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0009013
    ► Pfenning, M. & Ford, L., 1997, "The unphysical nature of Warp Drive", Classical and Quantum Gravity, 14, 1743: arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9702026
    ► Finazzi, S., Liberati, S., Barceló, C., 2009, "Semiclassical instability of dynamical warp drives", Physical Review D., 79, 124017: arxiv.org/abs/0904.0141
    ► McMonigal, B., Lewis, G., O'Byrne, P., 2012, "Alcubierre warp drive: On the matter of matter", Physical Review D., 85, 064024: arxiv.org/abs/1202.5708
    ► Everett, A., 1996, "Warp drive and causality", Physical Review D, 53, 7365: journals.aps.org/prd/abstract...
    ► For a more rigorous breakdown of the axis flipping in Minkowski spacetime, see Chapter 3 of "Special Relativity" by Valerio Faraoni (Chapter 3 is also available here williamsgj.people.cofc.edu/Mi...)
    Music licensed by SoundStripe.com (SS) [shorturl.at/ptBHI], or via Creative Commons (CC) Attribution License (creativecommons.org/licenses/..., or with permission from the artist
    ► Hill - An Interesting Retirement [open.spotify.com/album/3S2hu2...]
    ► Joachim Heinrich - Stjärna
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    ► Caleb Etheridge - Always Dreaming
    ► Joachim Heinrich - Y
    ► Indive - Trace Correction
    ::Film/TV clips used::
    ► Interstellar (2014) Paramount Pictures
    ► Contact (1997) Warnes Bros.
    ► The Imitation Game (2014) The Weinstein Company
    ► Star Trek: Generations (1994) Paramount Pictures
    ► Cosmos: Possible Worlds (2020) National Geographic Fox
    ► Stephen Hawking's Favorite Places (2016) Curiosity Stream
    ► Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back (1980) 20th Century Fox
    ► Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (1993-1999) Paramount Television
    ► The Day The Earth Stood Still (2008) 20th Century Fox
    ► Stargate (1994) MGM/UA Distribution Co.
    ► Star Trek: Beyond (2016) Paramount Pictures
    ► Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home (1986) Paramount Pictures
    ► The Expanse (2015-2022) Legendary Television Distribution
    ► Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987-1994) Paramount Television
    ► Avengers: Endgame (2019) Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures
    ► Star Trek: Enterprise (2001-2005) Paramount Television
    ► Back To The Future (1985) Universal Pictures
    ► Passengers (2016) Sony Pictures Releasing
    ► The Time Machine (Dreamworks)
    ► Alien: Covenant (2017) 20th Century Fox
    ► Star Trek (1966-1969) Paramount Television
    ► Tenet (2020) Warner Bros. Pictures
    ► Loki (2021-) Marvel Studios
    ► Somewhere In Time (1980) Universal Pictures
    ► The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford (2007) Warner Bros. Pictures
    ► Star Trek: Into Darkness (2013) Paramount Pictures
    ► Logan (2017) 20th Century Fox
    ► Star Trek: First Contact (1996) Paramount Pictures
    ► German by Frischholz Christian
    00:00 Introduction
    06:52 Space Time Diagrams
    12:51 Causality Violations
    17:01 Paradoxes in Time
    24:28 Outro and Credits
    #FasterThanLight #Alcubierre #CoolWorlds
  • Наука та технологіяНаука та технологія

КОМЕНТАРІ • 14 333

  • Brick bread
    Brick bread 3 місяці тому +1371

    I like to imagine that as soon as we discover FTL and break spacetime, the simulation crashes and the higher beings are annoyed they have another bug to fix

    • shloimy hoberman
      shloimy hoberman 2 дні тому

      Shit! We added Lightspeed to the sandbox as a universal limiter because if any user at any time can just jet off in any direction, we need the entire universe in a lightyear radius to be loaded ahead kf time and think of the strain that's gonna put on the servers!! We're dead, we're so very very dead, IT is gonna murder us, the project manager is gonna disintegrate us and our supervisor is going to throw our remains out of the nearest airlock, 'learn to code' they said, shouldn't have listened to them, stupid stupid stupid...

    • Thomas Bayles
      Thomas Bayles 6 днів тому

      @JustRaiderJohn lol. Your comment came out of left field. What did squirrels do?

    • Brick bread
      Brick bread 10 днів тому

      ​@Derek2k First of all, the comment is a joke.
      Second, even if the matrix was never created, I think people would still have the theory that we live in a simulation. The theory isn't even mainly based on the matrix, since there are records of it hundreds of years ago. Get your facts straight before commenting next time.

    • chrisponsano
      chrisponsano 10 днів тому

      @Derek2k It seems difficult for many people to let go of the dream of FTL. The basic fundamental way the universe is constructed runs counter to the stories we have told ourselves. It's as if the characters on the page of a novel wanted to jump out of the medium of the printed book into a world in which we have no correlation.

  • Icedragon256
    Icedragon256 Місяць тому +85

    I landed at the same "strict rules" conclusion back in 2007 when designing a sci-fi setting with FTL. I borrowed a bit from Douglas Adams and ended up with a version similar to one you hinted at. That any attempts to perform an action which would result in a paradox would be met with increasingly unlikely events to prevent it from occurring in the first place. Thus, before sending any FTL comms, or engaging in certain kinds of travel, you have to draw the light cones and think through the implications as shown in your video. Thanks for putting this together. It was nice to see someone think through the same things and tie it into a neat package.

    • Just_ Me
      Just_ Me Місяць тому +9

      I am doing a copy and paste from a quick thought I had.
      "Just spitballing here, because I am not a physicist nor time traveler, but perhaps it needs to be viewed in other dimensions rather than with a 2d graph.
      Say for example someone makes a device that in theory can send an FTL message. They turn it on and send a message, but nothing happens so they think it didn't work. However thinking in the infinite universes model the senders universe continued on it's time line, but the message was received in a multitude of parallel universes. They have zero clue as to where the message came from, but they received it none the less.
      Or perhaps the universes have a way of keeping things tidy, so too speak. So when the FTL message is sent, how do I say this, the entire universe is sent and is no longer where it was in time. Thinking in terms of infinite universes perhaps there are as many, call them anti universes (empty spaces) in the big empty. So the universe itself where the FTL message originated instantly fills the space where the message is received thus avoiding some weird entanglement of timelines.
      Sure there might be some side effects such as the Mandela effect, but that is price we pay in order to have FTL."

  • Victor Cury Simionato
    Victor Cury Simionato Місяць тому +123

    Congratulations, you had my complete attention to the entire 25 minutes. Very well done video and explanation. Super interesting

  • Terra
    Terra Місяць тому +23

    Cosmological and chronological paradoxes are so interesting, rather enjoyed listening to this more than I'd expected.

  • abrakannabra
    abrakannabra Місяць тому +24

    One small thing: if the message is traveling in a different time perspective than the ship, in what time perspective will this ship be able to decode it? (a reference to Orson Scott Card's books about Ender). I think this is not considered in your diagram.

    • Z M
      Z M 5 днів тому

      I was also wondering this. It seems as if the crew's time frame is simply dilated.
      A true "FTL" transmitter is violating the speed of light, therefore an "FTL" transmission of data no longer follows the rules of relativity. The frequency of the transmission would be compressed or stretched. Yes, normal EM is not supposed to do that, but certainly a rule-breaking machine would be the exception.
      It would be like "FTL message incoming"
      "Sorry, ship, we have to activate the transmission to Vega, we'll get back to you after your message fully arrives".

  • Frank Plughoff
    Frank Plughoff День тому +1

    Possibly the best, most informative and most intelligible videos on an impossible subject I have ever seen. There are those moments in life you can't un-see. Mostly we think of those in negative terms. But things we actually grok come in moments of elucidation and just can't be unlearned. This video put understanding just on the tip of my tongue ... I just get the flavor of the intertwined complexities. Thanks so much!

      VEGA SHAINNING 15 годин тому

      Your Not Kidding! Boy oh boy my mind feels as if it’s on steroids traveling the roller coaster 🎢 into exiting possibilities of discovery/emotion.

  • Krish P
    Krish P 11 місяців тому +7004

    Does anyone realize how crazy it is that we can even theorize something like this

    • Patrick Boehme
      Patrick Boehme 22 дні тому

      @Random Cubing And thanks to all of the incredible mathematicians that got Einstein started.

    • Anonymous
      Anonymous Місяць тому

      Does anyone realise that between us in this comment we might have the same ideas the same way of thinking or even the same habits? So how some people tell and even think that there is no life out there, maybe a copy of our planet or better or even in worse sape, and think that those sapes could possibly be our planet if we continue to live as we do or if we changed some things to the way we live right now. We couldn't know if we'd achieve a better or worse future aside the statistics.

    • Krish P
      Krish P Місяць тому

      @Joseph Preston lmao what that's dumb we don't have FTL

    • Joseph Preston
      Joseph Preston Місяць тому

      According to bob lazar we already have this tech. I’d imagine by now we’d be able to reverse engineer it. Best believe there’s going to a be a huge tech leap relatively soon.

  • cptblood1981
    cptblood1981 Місяць тому +58

    I would posit that it is possible it's just all about frames of reference. You would not be able to affect anything in your personal referential past. You could observe it, but not change it. I think the diagram is off in using the frame of reference for the STL ship as the "speed" of their FTL message would be significantly "faster" than the message from Earth. The correction for this means that their message would NOT arrive prior to that of the sent message. (On the graph their message would appear to them (could they see the graph) to curve upward past the message point. Using star trek terms if you fired off a message at warp 1 its not going to travel at (warp 1 + full impulse) simply because you were going at full impulse. Basically this graph "forgets" that for all of the pink FTL lines, the straight "space" line is not straight. For them it is a curve, so if you factor that in and the flatten it back out it shouldn't violate causality. I am probably wrong somewhere, it's 2 in the morning...

    • Simon m
      Simon m 2 дні тому

      I was going to write exactly this, the theory posted does not take into account that everything moving through space is actually on it's own space/time frame of reference. Its true that a an STL Ship would be experiencing time (compared to earth, as "sped up", (but normal to themselves), but it assumed that Vega's time frame reference is the same as Earth's which of course is nonsense. A body receives an FTL message, continues to move through space. It then replies to that message, Causally, it has already received the message. It maybe that from Earth point of view 2 years passed since the ship left and they saw the nova, but on the ship, only 1 week has passed. The ship responds an hour after receiving the message, but on earth it is 2 months since they sent it. EVEN IF THE SIGNAL IS INSTANTANEOUS there would still be passed time before they got a reply. This works the same at Vega too, Earth sends a message, it takes an hour to get there, Vega reply straight away, but the referential time means that Earth waits a week to see the reply, OR the same as the ship. Just because he draws a line that intersects below the first one doesn't make it so. Time doesn't stop, or go backwards, it always moves forward, its only the RELATIVE time frames that differ.

    • Peter Ingraham
      Peter Ingraham 6 днів тому

      @Kevin Cameron That exactly is the paradox, though. With relativity and hypothetical FTL communication, you CAN do just such a nonsensical act. Fundamental assumptions about order of events break down when FTL is allowed.

    • Kevin Cameron
      Kevin Cameron 19 днів тому

      The diagrams do not seem correct as sending a message faster than light could not arrive before the original STL ship left.
      I think he is mixing up time travel and speed of light which are 2 different things.

    • suave
      suave 19 днів тому +1

      I think you're correct. Basically, the means of "propulsion" that an alcubierre drive or "warp" drive would use manipulates space. You are not traveling ftl in terms of momentum, you are bending space so as to take a path shorter than the light is taking. I think technically you aren't moving, space is.
      For the record, I think that an alcubierre drive is impossible because you need imaginary materials. But since the video is referencing that as the means of propulsion, the argument, as I understand it, that there would be causality issues is incorrect.

    • Garconek
      Garconek 20 днів тому +2

      It may be right or wrong but the fact that it is showing 4 dimensional space-time on a 2 dimensional graph, it's like trying to show a 3D cube in 1D, it's simply not doable or at least it seems to me. From what I learned we are able to show a cube on a 2d sheet just because we are able to visualize the depth of the image and draw a "line behind the lines" that how we create 3d in short we are able to circumvent one dimension by imagining it so 4d can be shown in 3d, 3D in 2D, 2D in 1D, jumping from 4D to 2D doesn't make much sense and many things may not match like they should. That I think is the main problem here that there is just no way that he could show what he wants on 2D sheet. Rather than FTL I am more convinced by Einstein-Rosen bridges theory beacuse from what I know they go through additional 4th dimension of space there for not creating this paradox if its true.
      (sorry for mistakes if any english isn't my first language)

  • Andrew Crawford
    Andrew Crawford Місяць тому +6

    I'm just curious, if time is constantly moving forward as in the perspective of earth wouldn't the message be returned from the ship later in time? any clarification would be appreciated

  • ivas ceo
    ivas ceo 2 місяці тому +21

    your level of explanation, and competence is amazing. You show great quality passion, high enthusiastic and love for astrology.

    • David Corrado
      David Corrado Місяць тому +6

      Astrology ≠ astronomy. Big difference.

  • Lilith
    Lilith Місяць тому +2

    My issue with this is the STL operates under the assumption that the crew or even a computer is capable of responding the exact same moment the message is received. Even if it was a computer setup to receive a 1 and return a 0 there's still time there for the response to be formulated and sent out

  • himanshu saraswat
    himanshu saraswat Місяць тому +11

    Hello Sir! Time Paradox you explained resides in a slice of space and time as concluded by Eienstine. How do we validate this Paradox in reference to continuous expansion of time and space without the measure of acceleration rate?

  • Shiny Sheepy
    Shiny Sheepy 8 місяців тому +1299

    "It almost seems like a cruel cosmic joke that the universe be arranged such a way that we are able to look out and glimpse its wonders and yet are trapped here by the speed of light." So well said

    • Demitri Jones
      Demitri Jones 10 днів тому

      @A Ka myths are halt true.

    • Dick Cock
      Dick Cock 20 днів тому +1

      @A Ka like you said evolution can't happen if there's nothing to evolve. Matter can not just simply appear, it has to be created, but who or what created all the matter in the universe? God did there is overwhelming evidence to support this theory, but most people are deliberately ignorant of the evidence because, if God's word (the Bible) is true eternal punishment is a consequence for those who resist the free gift of salvation Jesus offered to all and they don't like that, they don't want to know the truth because sin is pleasing.

    • Light Yagami
      Light Yagami Місяць тому

      Yup, dem peepz in da Bootes Void are much luckier cos ignorance is bliss.

    • Ridge
      Ridge Місяць тому

      ​@Literally a 442nd clone trooper with a carrot 💯

  • Pol Garcia
    Pol Garcia Місяць тому +17

    Very interesting video! However, a question popped up for me about the breaking of the causality rule and I can't seem to answer it myself.
    So, according to the rule, "the world line defines the time axis, as perceived by those following it", and thus the time slice of the STL's crew has to be parallel to the that of the observer's (that is, them; the red dash line). However, I noticed that, according to the diagram, the hypothetical STL ship takes off from Earth (I assume the point of origin within the vertical Earth's time axis is the point of departure of the ship) to send the warning of the Supernova X to Vega before the Earth(lings) actually "sees" Supernova X. Does that mean that, in this case, it is implied that "seeing" is a different event than "perceiving", and that the Earth(lings) are aware of the Supernova X radiation coming their way before they actually "see" or rather experiment its effects (if any)? Also, assuming an STL ship was ready to be launched the moment something like Supernova X was detected (not "seen" as in the diagram; something prior to that), does that mean that both an STL ship and an FTL ship are sent to Vega within the same space and relatively the same time, just in different points in time on Earth relative to the "seeing" and "perceiving" of Supernova X? Should that be the case, then both ships would have been sent to space with the same knowledge of Supernova X and the same goal, and thus when the STL ship gets to Vega, it already knows about Supernova X happening right from its departure from Earth because its purpose was to warn Vegans about that in the first place, right? My point here is, the time slice for the STL's crew is supposed to be parallel to the red dash line, and as shown in the video causality was broken when applied, but the red dash line doesn't seem to start at the right point of the Earth's time axis if anything I said makes sense, and so its origin should be the same as the one from the FTL ship if "seeing" is the same as "perceiving", which is what I understand is the case. Then the testing with the time slice would make sense since the red dash line, with its new point of origin being the star on Earth in the diagram, would roughly have the same angle as the original green line that connects Supernova X, Earth and Vega, and thus the causality would be the same as with the FTL ship, the only difference being that the STL ship would get there long after Vegans noticed the Supernova X, right?
    Furthermore, the red dash line, from what I understand, does not represent the actual moment when the STL ship reaches Vega: it represents how its crew perceived the time that passed from their departure from Earth until their arrival on Vega, but the real moment when they reach Vega is the red line, not the dashed one. So, the only "paradox" here would be that the crew thought they reached Vega on time to warn Vegans about Supernova X when, in reality, it happened decades or centuries ago. Shouldn't we then apply the time slice in the the red line's angle and not in the dashed one?
    Otherwise, if an STL ship was sent to Vega before Supernova X was detected from Earth, then the diagram would be correct as it is but the causality wouldn't be broken: the STL ship would've been sent to Vega for a different purpose other than warn Vegans about Supernova X given that the crew from that STL's ship would not know about it: it just hadn't happened yet when they departed from Earth. In that case, just like in the last scenario, the only problem would be the crew's perception of reality or knowledge about it, but not the actual events that happened around them.

    • Andrew Song
      Andrew Song 14 днів тому

      @Arun PKR think about it some more dude. In the instantaneous example it's easy to see that IF a message was transmitted instantaneously, it MUST be parallel to the space line of the reference frame (because no time has elapsed). Just...it is literally the only line that's possible, because if you draw the line out denoted in the upward direction, the message will never reach earth.
      Also he's just paraphrasing "warp drive and causality" by Allen E. Everett linked in his description, I suggest you take a look at the paper. The math checks out, he's just making it easier to digest.

    • Andrew Song
      Andrew Song 14 днів тому +1

      what bro why did I have to read your wall of text god damn.
      The ship is not going to vega to warn them about the supernova, there is no implicit or explicit causality here, the ship does indeed depart before seeing supernova x - because its purpose is not to warn vega about supernova x, it's just an abstract representation of any STL ship capable of reaching vega. (and that's the point - causality breaks with any ship travelling to any arbitrary planet sufficiently far apart in the space axis).
      The causality break happens when earth decides to send a FTL message to the ship, which from both earth's and the ship's reference frame, happens _after_ the ship has departed from earth.

    • Jimmy Johns
      Jimmy Johns 18 днів тому +1


    • Arun PKR
      Arun PKR 26 днів тому +3

      he is just blabbing and grabbing. the reply message from the STL ship must be denoted in upward direction. but he denotes it in downward direction, therby creating paradox

    • Pol Garcia
      Pol Garcia Місяць тому +4

      @ace At first everything seemed to make sense, but upon rewinding the video for those two things I couldn't understand I just realized that, in the video, there is no distinction between actual facts and perceptions, but in reality that is what makes the whole difference for the argument doesn't it? My guess is that the original theory has more details to it than it was shown in the video and that our concerns with it are actually solved with the full explanation, but let's see if someone can give us an answer in further comments.

  • Stuff59042
    Stuff59042 Місяць тому +30

    First thing that causality/FTL paradox diagram makes me think is that our basic understanding of causality may be inaccurate. That's the first place my brain reaches for.
    It's like running through an equation that you already know the answer to but coming up with the wrong answer. You know the answer you got is wrong because you know what the answer already is, you're just working through the scenario the equation presents.
    In life, when it comes to problems involving perception of any kind, I've learned that the first place you always want to look is at the human error factor.
    I'm no quantum physicist or math wizard, sure. But when you know the answer you're coming up with doesn't match the answer you know to expect, do you blame the problem or do you double check your work?
    Or to simplify it, when you take a measurement and then cut something to length and it doesn't work, do you check the measurement or do you check the cut length?
    Problem then becomes that we don't have a cheatsheet to refer back to and there's no way to run a real world version of it to see how we get to the answer. At least not yet.

    • Ando Rexurix
      Ando Rexurix 27 днів тому +4

      There was a PBS Space Time video where the narrator proposed that the decreased progress in quantum mechanics may be due to the fact that we may have to consider a completely different outlook on how we see the universe. For all we know we might've reached a dead-end given the knowledge and mathematical formulas we have. We're trying to apply macroscopic rules onto subatomic events that we cannot properly measure, so our intuition fails us time and time again. Or as someone else said, "if your only tool is a hammer then everything looks like a nail."

  • NK Irmath
    NK Irmath Місяць тому +3

    I think there's definitely a huge risk of putting something in the space of being 2 sizes at one time.

  • YS
    YS Місяць тому +3

    "The cosmic speed limit, the speed of light is so diminutive compared to a galaxy. It almost seems like a cruel cosmic joke that the universe be arranged in such a way that we are able to look out and glimpse its wonders and yet are trapped here by the speed of light. Fated to only ever peer through the bars of our cosmic prison and dream." -- This is so beautifully spoken...

  • RPD_Phantom
    RPD_Phantom 29 днів тому +1

    I can’t do 73+29 in my head without panicking but these grand math problems fascinate me

  • JACK The All-Seeing Eye
    JACK The All-Seeing Eye 4 місяці тому +757

    There once was a young lad named Mike.
    Who could run faster than the speed of light.
    He took off one day,
    In a relative way,
    And returned on the previous night!

    • Michael
      Michael Місяць тому

      Very funny 🤣

    • Zachery Tobin
      Zachery Tobin Місяць тому

      @J David its not necessarily impossible because both numbers of the ratio always reflect a percentage of a singular unit. basically, the 100% cap is simply the point at which division becomes multiplication. for example If I eat 200% of a chocolate bar, that simply means I ate 2 whole chocolate bars.

    • QiWunu
      QiWunu Місяць тому

      ​@J David improper fractions say otherwise

  • Nirbhay Raghav
    Nirbhay Raghav Місяць тому +2

    I so want to work with you and get a PhD. Unfortunately, I am neither a physics major nor good at physics!! But I absolutely love astronomy and everything you do on this channel.

    • Perfidious Puffin
      Perfidious Puffin Місяць тому

      @Equious Well, there is a lot of things you can't do beyond just that. In fact, the vast majority of things you can think of you can't do. Its pretty much infinite to 1, since imagination is limitless, but reality is EXTREMELY constricting. Every second of time virtually nothing goes exactly as it would in your best imagination, for everyone, everywhere, who ever lived. What you can do is get sort of close to what you want some of the time, if you work at it. And that is enough.

    • Equious
      Equious Місяць тому +1

      The only thing you can't do is travel faster than light!

  • Adui13
    Adui13 2 місяці тому +5

    Thank you for breaking my brain. I have always had a problem with relativity, but I am not an academic in such things, I'm a layman with little real understanding. This both helped me understand and broke my understanding...

  • Lincoln W
    Lincoln W Місяць тому +4

    So if I had a house on mars with a FTL facetime phone and was calling my friend on earth, I could communicate instantly as if we were face to face. But what if while we were FTL facetiming, we also had STL camera feeds of each other’s respective rooms? Could we then see each other in a present past and an instant present?

  • Tony G
    Tony G Місяць тому +4

    My explanation of time paradoxes has always been that the timeline is rewritten each time. For example in Terminator, John Connor rose to be a lead through other means. After the events of the movie happen, he becomes a better leader in the future and changes appearance (genes) due to his father being different than the previous timeline.

  • TheSovietFlag&AnthemGuy 234
    TheSovietFlag&AnthemGuy 234 Місяць тому +1

    Imagine being the first person to reach another star only to find humans have already colonized it because of time dilation

  • Gabe
    Gabe 7 місяців тому +70

    In the Halo extended lore (books and etc), their use of slipspace creates time paradoxes like, constantly. It's not uncommon for a ship to arrive at it's destination hours, days, or WEEKS before it left. And everyone's collective reaction to the existence of these paradoxes is just to kinda shrug, say "hey man, don't worry about it too much," and move on

    • James McQueary
      James McQueary 6 днів тому +1

      @Gabe thanks man.

    • Gabe
      Gabe 7 днів тому +1

      @James McQueary This is a great analogy. In the Forerunner trilogy, they call it "slipsspace debt," and there are galaxy-wide implications for pushing that slipspace debt. Objects that are bigger, move faster, or travel very long distances incur greater slipspace debt. Whenever the Halo arrays were moved, it messed up slipspace travel and FTL communications across the entire galaxy for YEARS.

    • James McQueary
      James McQueary 7 днів тому +1

      A good analogy to this is:
      The ship is moving through a sea of molasses, the ship can move faster, but it requires a lot of power, and the molasses collects at the "front" of the ship.
      When the ship uses ftl, it collects molasses at the front, and when it arrives at it's destination, the molasses has to flow off the ship and fill in the empty space left by the ship, until the buildup of molasses has returned to normal levels.
      This molasses represents time, and when the ship uses ftl, it compresses time toward the destination, and time (molasses) from the point of departure has to flow in behind the ship fill in the "empty space".
      Once the ship has exited ftl and has returned to/ is returning to "normal space", the time (molasses) flows back into the "empty space".
      Once the molasses reconnects with itself and fills in the void, time begins flow normally again, but because time was compressed on the journey, there was no "drag" to keep track of, and the ship seems to appear at it's destination before it's departure.

    • R Hamlet
      R Hamlet Місяць тому +1

      @Nick Malachai The Biungie lore was great. 343 fucked it up though. Never heard of this one, though. Covenant ships were always faster so this is an odd one to throw into the mix.

  • aduntoridas80
    aduntoridas80 Місяць тому +2

    Loved your video. Have your same feelings and hopes about it. But "Alcubierre" is a Spanish lastname. From one of our regions, the Basque Country. It's pronounced something like this "Al (like Al Copone), cu (like quality), bi (like bee), e (like elegance) and rre (like recognition). He is mexican with Spanish origins. Thank you and good luck ;)

  • Ethan Haynes
    Ethan Haynes 21 день тому

    This is the one video that finally makes me understand paradoxes

  • itcaCoffee
    itcaCoffee 17 днів тому +1

    Just wanted to put this comment and anecdotal information into the universe.
    Your thumbnail image for this video, I've seen a close example of it in real life. Gravitational lensing / distortions surrounding an object with blueshift at front with redshift on rear, if I would've blinked at that moment I would have missed it. That was the most mind blowing night I've ever had, while stargazing deep in the mountains (other people were with me to confirm it wasn't a dream, there was a few more physics defying events that happened that night). I wish I was better at math to dive deeper into the topic, but there's only so much time in a week (ba dum tiss).
    Love the video, great detailed explanations!

  • Ancient Technology
    Ancient Technology Місяць тому

    The easiest way through this scenario would be communication protocols like radio silence.

  • Joydeep Mohanto
    Joydeep Mohanto Місяць тому +1

    absolutely mind blowing video. loved it

  • Bachelorchownowwithflavor
    Bachelorchownowwithflavor Рік тому +843

    "The universe is not required to be in perfect harmony with human ambition." -Carl Sagan

    • 𝕂𝕚𝕟𝕘ℂ𝕙𝕣𝕚𝕩
      𝕂𝕚𝕟𝕘ℂ𝕙𝕣𝕚𝕩 16 днів тому

      Human ambition is not required to be in perfect harmony with an imperfect universe.

    • John
      John 16 днів тому

      Humans aren't special

    • Minotaur1776
      Minotaur1776 18 днів тому

      And rules are made to be broken.

    • ben's ideas
      ben's ideas 21 день тому

      This is BS because the line approaching the present could be curved like every line in nature.

  • Fabio Rezzonico
    Fabio Rezzonico 2 місяці тому +1

    Excellent video! One question open for me is "How would the space axis look like for any FTL voyager? Would you flip it also relatively to the light speed? In that case in our frame of reference we would see their axes as inverted (meaning that they are travelling back in time?). Would a FTL traveller still see light moving always at light speed?

    • Adam Morrison
      Adam Morrison Місяць тому +1

      @MonOptiqueThe present moment I’m experiencing is not the exact same someone will be experiencing 1 light year away. You can’t just rule out observation-based physics.

    • Adam Morrison
      Adam Morrison Місяць тому

      If you were to “go” faster than light for even a split second, you would travel back to the moment you attempted to travel at the speed of light. Hence, why it’s a limitation and completely impossible when considering all theories.

    • MonOptique
      MonOptique 2 місяці тому

      "The present moment" is identical for everyone, everywhere in the sky of the galaxies.
      Traveling to the "past" or to the "future" is an idea of our brain, very imaginative.
      This does not correspond to reality. Sorry.
      Greeting from France.

  • aditya patel
    aditya patel Місяць тому

    very well explained . thanks for sharing knowledge

  • RWI Life and Travel
    RWI Life and Travel Місяць тому +2

    Fascinating stuff. My brain feels like it wants to expand beyond the confines of my skull. I think once we understand the true nature of the universe we will better understand the possibilities and consequences of FTL.

    • Stephen Glynn
      Stephen Glynn Місяць тому

      there are no possibilities with FTL travel. FTL travel is impossible only something with zero mass can travel the speed of light. any spaceship you built to go that speed cant do it as the faster it travels the heavier it gets and then it needs more power. you would need infinate energy to get to the speed of light and that cant happen.

  • Ben Mills
    Ben Mills Місяць тому +1

    If you look at FTL as a linear speed then you probably have access to instant teleportation anyway, I feel as though acceleration and deceleration of anything traveling FTL would help alleviate a lot of confusion around space/time paradoxes. You would be looking at a lot more problems to solve with linear FTL such as matter being instantly obliterated as it instantaneously goes FTL. I like to imagine it as a function curve which starts out as STL then crosses the null line horizontally then decelerates to the same linear function of STL but below the null line. kind of like a tilda ~
    I know all this is completely incorrect but hey might give someone something to think about or explain how wrong exactly i am :)

    • Team Panda
      Team Panda Місяць тому

      I agree. Instant FTL like teleporting would be kind of impossible. You could maybe transfer data from you to a copy of you in another location but this data would still have to be transfered from one point to another either at the speed of light or ftl somehow but never instantly. Not sure if i'm right tho

  • Kenneth
    Kenneth 7 днів тому

    Thanks Dr Kipping
    If space is expanding FTL, then we are also expanding at an FTL speed relative to everything else. Sort of like two jets traveling at 600 mph together that appear to be stationary to each other . If we were in a spaceship that somehow could halt our expansion speed, could we "travel" to another star that is in expanding space towards us?

  • frump99
    frump99 11 місяців тому +440

    I like how Terry Pratchett said it better than the way Hawking did: Everything that happens, stays happened.

    • Paul Carter
      Paul Carter Місяць тому

      @JRod How would you know? What is, is. Upon that assumption rides all of science.

    • Perfidious Puffin
      Perfidious Puffin Місяць тому

      Thats actually because Hawkin is astonishingly overrated. A lot of people have described stuff he is credited with far more concisely, but his reputation, unique appearance, media buzz, and "pow science" makes everyone think he came up with things that are well known already. It disguests me that he is being credited with some kind of discovery of no causality violations, an axiom that essencially every physicist, and frankly anyone with common sense, has known for all time. Him phrasing it more "sciency" as if its some kind of profound statement is total bs.

    • Balwant Sahu
      Balwant Sahu 5 місяців тому


    • EZ toturial
      EZ toturial 6 місяців тому

      Stephen hawking :there's no god (🤣)

    • Hamburger HamburgerV2
      Hamburger HamburgerV2 6 місяців тому +1

      which is why time travel is impossible. because it’d always be possible if it was.

  • Wildfire Gaming
    Wildfire Gaming 15 днів тому +1

    Bascailly, what I got from this is that as long as you don't have an STL ship traveling a significant percentage of the speed of light and using an FTL transmitter, then the odds of a paradox are bascially zero. And if we had FTL technology we probably wouldn't be using STL ships that travel at a significant percentage of the speed of light anyway. So it's a problem, but not a huge problem.

  • Eric
    Eric 2 місяці тому +4

    This video perfectly answered all the question I had on the subject, thank you!

  • Torinn Balasar
    Torinn Balasar Місяць тому +3

    It's been too long since I learned how reflecting lines about different axis' works; how does the ftl comm reply at 18:10 result in that line, rather than its reflection about the time axis (since it's traveling the opposite direction in space, like described at 8:53), which would then not break causality since the comm will still be traveling higher up the time axis rather than back down?

    • Omega Studios - Minecraft
      Omega Studios - Minecraft 21 день тому +1

      This whole thing perplexes me too, but I found that his explanation at 19:10 was cool. The pink line going back to earth to say “don’t send the message” would have to travel parallel to the space axis of the STL ship, as the FTL message would travel instantaneously and can thus not travel through time in the perspective of the STL ship

  • Double Tap
    Double Tap Місяць тому +1

    I have traveled through a deep dark hole many many times and seem to find myself amazed everytime

  • tyler2
    tyler2 13 днів тому

    Interstellar is a great movie and it actually got me wanting to go to space, im 15 so i have my whole life ahead of me and i can't wait to see if i am actually able to accomplish my dream

  • madzangels
    madzangels Рік тому +55

    What is most beautiful about this video - is actually what it has done to the comments section. Look at all the wonder, the questions, the curiosity, the debate. All these wonderful human beings trying to discover - this is what I love most about humanity, we're all in this thing together :)

    • gaming creates worlddd 24
      gaming creates worlddd 24 4 місяці тому +1

      @Panse Pot no don't your brain will hurt badly

    • Panse Pot
      Panse Pot 11 місяців тому +4

      Have a look at the comments on some conspiracy videos. The moon landing deniers, or the flat earthers for instance.

  • Full Finnoy
    Full Finnoy 26 днів тому +1

    This video is an exceptional exploration of the possibility of faster-than-light (FTL) travel and messaging.
    The research referenced in this video is outstanding, and the music and film/TV clips used make it more interesting. The video is well researched and presented in an engaging manner. If you're interested in space travel and its possibilities, this is a must-watch! Subscribe to their channel to stay updated with their research.

  • TheSovietFlag&AnthemGuy 234
    TheSovietFlag&AnthemGuy 234 Місяць тому

    Correct me if I’m wrong but the paradoxes would only happen if your going FTL but if your going at 0.99 the speed of light you’d just experience what a person on plane sees to a greater extent in terms of time dilation

  • Monkey Robots Inc.
    Monkey Robots Inc. Місяць тому

    imagine you are somewhere else in the universe. now imagine you wanted to travel here. there you go. just saved a hell of a lot of time energy and effort.

  • Kobe Dierckx
    Kobe Dierckx Місяць тому +2

    Man great word choice in the introduction, you play beautifully with words and caught my attention with this awesome introduction so much that i just had to write it in a comment, you have a new subscriber:)

  • Echo Lost Gaming
    Echo Lost Gaming Місяць тому +1

    14:50 I really tried to understand and comprehend this, was fine all the way up to the dotted stl axis..and I struggled :( rewatched and still can't get it. 😔
    Edit: I watched the rest and as Marty Mcfly once said, (almost) 'I guess I'm just not ready for this stuff yet' 😅
    A fascinating and intriguing topic, however.

    • Stiriacus Tenebris
      Stiriacus Tenebris Місяць тому +3

      The diagram is wrong it is missing some variables.
      Time is relative for each object even the message itself, at 14:50 it doesn't say amount of time for the ship to receive the data OF VEGA.
      So even if Vega at that moment sent message FTL, the ship would still receive it in it's relative time.
      Example is, the message of Vega to the ship itself would have 'sense' of 1 second traveling, BUT when it reaches the ship, the time passed for the crewmembers would be a lot more.

    • Echo Lost Gaming
      Echo Lost Gaming Місяць тому

      @FantaWriter I actually really like the Brian Green example, using a loaf of bread where time is described in a series of infinite moments each one a slice of bread, bread being the space. I understood the relativistic logic there.

    • FantaWriter
      FantaWriter Місяць тому +1

      I don't think this diagram is even accurate, since the order of events from the "crews" perspective shows that Vega Receives Warning before they even leave Earth, but they would have the same time slice as Earth until then.

  • Jason Cherry
    Jason Cherry Рік тому +413

    I'm having a lot of difficulty wrapping my head around some things here. For example, why is the space axis a mirror-flip across the null line of the world line? For the "stationary" earth I get that it would look like a mirror-flip, but why is it? Also, when the transmission is sent from the STL ship after receiving the earth transmission, why is the slope negative? I feel like having this side-by-side with a similar diagram for the STL ship's perspective (with its world line being vertical, and the others being angled) would help clear things up...
    Like, I get that there's some consideration here for time dilatation, but wouldn't that be bypassed too, as using something like the Alcubierre drive, the object is not actually moving FTL, just the space it resides in is, so it wouldn't suffer time dilatation... I'm just getting confused.

    • Ownage
      Ownage 4 місяці тому

      @David Lafleche no it doesnt 🤣

    • David Lafleche
      David Lafleche 4 місяці тому

      @Ownage The existence of Jerusalem proves the existence of the Lord Jesus Christ. "And in that day I will make Jerusalem a burdensome stone for all people: all that burden themselves with it shall be cut in pieces, though all the people of the earth be gathered against it" (Zechariah 12:3, KJV).
      Ever since the Jews returned to their ancient homeland in 1948, Islamic and Roman Catholic terrorists have been desperately trying to steal the Holy Land from its Jewish owners; but, despite outnumbering the Jews 6-to-1, they have always failed. Why? Because God the Father promised that His only begotten Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, shall rule the world as King of the Jews in Israel. "Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion" (Psalm 2:6, KJV). The Lord Jesus Christ shall return to Jerusalem, so you might as well quit while you're behind.

    • Ownage
      Ownage 4 місяці тому

      @David Lafleche god doesnt exist 🤦‍♂️

  • Marc Kemp
    Marc Kemp 13 днів тому

    Well.. sometimes there's circumstances that create two or more different speeds of sound. So I wonder if there's circumstances that could create different speeds of light? I'm postulating if you could cause variable light speed then you could also have variable time. But now wait a minute. Time is more related to gravity. I'm going to have to think about it some more.

  • Not Provided
    Not Provided 18 годин тому

    In my opinion if FTL was possible, then the apparent causality violations would only be illusions that would be observed from the ship's perspective. Once you stop, everything will appear to "fall" back in order

  • Robert Cleminson
    Robert Cleminson 24 дні тому

    you are great and i love your videos keep up your good work

  • Byarne Schwab
    Byarne Schwab 29 днів тому

    It was all very nice explained and I understood almost all of it. there is only one thing I am trying to figure out.
    in the Diagram, why is the Space axis for the STL ship at an acute angle? wouldn't that mean that, even though they are traveling STL for us, it seems for them as though they are traveling faster than light? because, for them they are closer to the space axis than the time axis.
    I hope my question is understandable.

  • Chester Marcol
    Chester Marcol Місяць тому +1

    If we're "trapped" by the speed of light, I would imagine that it's for our own good.

  • heret
    heret Рік тому +537

    Yet again you combine scientific explanation with a thoughtful and beautiful message.
    Thanks for one day deciding to start doing these videos, they mean a lot to me.

  • Tudor Aposteanu
    Tudor Aposteanu 27 днів тому

    Each second traveling the speed of light, you travel back in time 2,25 seconds. Made the calculation and formula sometime in 1997, being in highschool somewhere in Philadelphia. Could do the math again.

  • SpitfireSPIRIT13
    SpitfireSPIRIT13 10 годин тому

    What if we somehow calculate how to send the message back at a specific send rate so that it’s not received back in time?

  • chrisponsano
    chrisponsano Місяць тому +4

    If our efforts at FTL create paradoxes, what happens since parts space/time are currently traveling several times faster than light relative to us?

    • chrisponsano
      chrisponsano 10 днів тому

      @Astro Good answer! Thanks for your detailed reply!

    • Astro
      Astro 10 днів тому +1

      Since spacetime is moving FTL relative to us, we are also moving FTL relative to those same parts of spacetime. The reason it doesn’t create paradoxes is because the speed limit of light only applies to things that move THROUGH space, it doesn’t apply to space itself.
      So when we look at a distant galaxy moving at a speed that seems to be FTL, the galaxy isn’t actually moving, or at least it’s moving much slower than it appears. One way to envision this is to think of 2 ants on a balloon. An Ant might only be able to walk 1 inch a second, but if you blow up the balloon as they walk apart, they could end up 10inches apart after 2 seconds because the surface of the balloon is expanding so fast, even though they are only walking 1in/s.

  • Nelson Reyes
    Nelson Reyes Місяць тому

    Perhaps every instance of paradox creates its own tumeline and universe.

  • Chris Pacia
    Chris Pacia Місяць тому

    Thinking about this more. I'm pretty sure the result is due to the "instantaneous" message not being instantaneous in all reference frames. In this diagram it's instantaneous in the sender's reference frame, but not in the recipient's.
    That might be the correct as far as special relativity goes. But then again, before special relativity everyone thought the speed of light was different in different reference frames and no one considered that it could be the same in all reference frames.
    What does the result look like if we assume faster than light messages are the same speed in all reference frames, just like we assume with light? I don't think this would break causality. Though it might break other things. I need to think about it more.

  • stealthyshiroean
    stealthyshiroean 11 місяців тому +65

    I always love the very grounding and philosophical thoughts proposed in these videos along with the theory. Really helps to place the science and the importance of these studies in a broader sense and why or why not humanity should pursue them.

  • Truckin' Chef
    Truckin' Chef 2 місяці тому

    Or, change your calendar as we know it into a light year calendar. Like for instance, time how long it takes to travel a light year in the same minutes and seconds use everyday, then adjust our calendar reflect those light days. Just a thought

  • xXx
    xXx 26 днів тому

    Does anyone question whether or not if light actually has speed?

  • Dax Bertumen
    Dax Bertumen 2 місяці тому

    If the idea is to work together for something beyond that is attainable by our own mortal timeline, for the benefit of the next generation or of the survival of humanity, then the ants and the bees have already beaten us to it. The movie Interstellar has given us this message in its final scenes.

    • Dax Bertumen
      Dax Bertumen Місяць тому

      @The Great Hadoken Your negation is on a frame that is Material and physical. My comment was actually framed in the philosophical, spiritual and cultural context. Of course you can easily squash those bugs, why then did I say they are better? well, there's the difference in the framing of the context.
      What I am highlighting is their superiority in organization, perhaps maybe their structured governance, class function and collective utilitarianism. But then of course the hive-mind, swarm and collective principles are required which are not attributes prescribed by nature to humans and even other advanced species. Communists tried to emulate the principles to a certain degree, but never effectively and consistently like the insects do.
      Maybe it only works for smaller organisms that can produce their own materials and not need more than what they personally utilize. As compared to capitalizing on fellow smaller organisms for enterprise and bucketloads of camel dung currency or trade resource. I cant say for certain, but maybe. just maybe, we wont be able to break the next barrier of civilization development unless we adopt a culture similar to those bugs.
      All of those goodness and yes, of course, you can easily squash them and burn them and they only get to space if you put them in your pockets or your drawers.. they don't have their own rockets, their weapons are even their own teeth! Imagine going to war with UK, and the geneva convention prohibits use of any other weapons of war but your bare unjacketed, unbrushed Teeth! UK would lose i know but that was the joke. lol These bugs even have to live close to human homes to conveniently find food and water. I hope you see the miss now. :D
      In short, between my comment and your counter, there really was no intercept. Like I aimed for Andromeda through the dark side of the moon, but from the same moon on the brighter side, your aim was back to the earth. No linear intercept in idea, vector, frame and context, whatsoever.
      Nevertheless, I agree with all your physical assessments of how the world is naturally existing at this very moment in time. ;)
      Seriously though, thank you for sharing your thoughts. I appreciate people who think.. unlike most of the modern people today.

  • Bookr
    Bookr 14 днів тому

    I'm not able to understand why the STL ship's space line (dotted red line) is at a lower angle than the ship's time (solid red line). Not saying you're , I may have missed something and would love to understand this model.
    Edit: I see now why the model works like this, as it's explained that the space line is just a flipped time line over the 45° angle.

  • STohme
    STohme Місяць тому

    Very interesting and very nice video. Many thanks.

  • Evan Butler
    Evan Butler 7 місяців тому +20

    The problem only applies because the ship's worldline isn't parallel to either Earth's or Vega's. Perhaps FTL is only possible when both the origin and destination have parallel worldlines, which could be enforced by a requirement that the reference frames are entangled in a way that forces them to be in sync. I don't know enough physics to determine if that makes any sense tho...

  • Corey Burnett
    Corey Burnett Місяць тому +3

    The key to this explanation of FTL travel and time paradoxes seems to be the idea that a person's space axis is always a reflection of it's time axis about the null line. That is why when the STL ship travels close to the null line that it's space axis is also moved close to the null line. It isn't clear to me from this video why that is. But perhaps that is a larger and more complicated discussion.

    • Braden Gleaton-thornton
      Braden Gleaton-thornton Місяць тому

      I have the same question, why is my space axis a reflection of my time axis across the null line, if an atom is at one point in space for a period of time, according to this idea the atom would also be instantaneously at another point in space

  • James Ferguson
    James Ferguson 27 днів тому

    So if Vega can get a warning can get a warning THEN later will see it, that means theoretically as soon as you get the warning you can travel at FTL to prevent it from happening thus going back in time

  • Jonathan DJING
    Jonathan DJING 25 днів тому

    Watching videos like this , with futuristic images only reminds me of my childhood. I used to think that all this was scienfiction,

    SCHNOZ 24 дні тому

    How small of a an object or particle would it take to damage an object going the speed of light

    DO the IMPOSSIBLE Місяць тому +1

    Imagine all the temporal anomalies we don't know about.

    • Razor Wire
      Razor Wire 17 днів тому

      Yeah, considering Captain Picard and crew have probably seen most of the ones that can happen. lol

  • David McCoy
    David McCoy 8 місяців тому +171

    I’m in favor of the conclusion that if we encounter “paradoxes” in a scientific thought process we should consider that the concept is flawed. However, I would point out that the chart has problems when using the STL craft and it’s time slice. Even if one buys that the STL time slice is the correct angle here, it still matters where the craft is on that slice. The crew doesn’t get to instantly “know” when Vega sees things. You’d have to allow time for Vega to send the signal to the craft and by then the light from the super nova might have already reached the ship. In addition, the ship’s movement through space over the course of the events it does perceive would affect the value of this visual.

    • ExarchRed
      ExarchRed 4 місяці тому

      @Hammertime Here's a good question: where is the omniscient pov's time line? Maybe trying to have an objective perspective on a process that is quite literally relative is the problem here; trying to introduce a variable that is antithetical to the experiment. The explanation is flawed because it fails to address this; we have an objective point of reference: the light line. If that is the case, information cannot move against the vectors of the light lines, thus only up and across, regardless of your perspective.

    • Balwant Sahu
      Balwant Sahu 5 місяців тому


    • Jabes
      Jabes 7 місяців тому

      juan abee Empirical evidence tells us that physical laws are consistent as far as we can see. We can sense and measure a lot about the observable universe. So what I'm saying is that the assumptions are not about the Physics. Dark Matter is point of discussion though, but its gravitational effects are known, and its source is being narrowed down and homed in on.

    • VVolverine2020
      VVolverine2020 7 місяців тому

      What’s the problem with seeing something before it happens? My drinking buddy Nostradamus has experience it before…

  • Mark Smith
    Mark Smith 18 днів тому +1

    Logically, you could replace "light" with "sound" and "see" with "hear", and FTL with FTS etc. and by the exact same logic and graph, nothing can go faster than the speed of sound.

  • runningbear218
    runningbear218 Місяць тому

    The messages I feel fall victim of the observer effect. Just that fact that a human mind is aware of it, changes the outcomes.

    DAT ENGINEER217 Місяць тому

    So since most of this is theory and assumptions I will question how this STL ship is capable of picking up non direct signals and messages at the speed of light (I imagine that FTL messaging would be more of a P2P affair than standard signals). Because while yes *technically* effect happens after cause but only if they receive this information at or faster than the speed of light. Which means that from the perspective of the crew, yes its a paradox, but its the same as if I got an email telling me about an oil spill and then got a newspaper that told me about how an oil tanker lost control and may or may not miss an island. In theory I could perceive this as a paradox if I chose to believe the newspaper to be more up to date than the email.

  • DA MAN
    DA MAN 25 днів тому

    Something people are struggling with is why the line is moving downward in the STL Ship example with the FTL transmission. It's understandable, given how unintuitive physics is with common sense. Im not 100% sure either whats exactly going on, but I think I can grasp enough to put it in laymans terms.
    So when the STL ship is moving through space, time around it is dialating according to how fast you move through space. The closer to the speed of light you are, the faster time seems to move around you as space literally speeds by. The problems begin when you reach the speed of light. What happens?
    Firstly, you are now past the speed of light. Think of a car. You know how when a car drives by you at the same speed, it almost looks like it's not moving at all, even if you know it is? That's what would happen to time and space around you as you perceive it. To light itself. Now consider what happens when you begin to outspeed light.
    It would move. But not forwards ahead of you. But behind you. Space and time would be so slow by your perspective that it would begin to move backwards, literally. The closer you get to another object, the further back in time that space will go. Atleast, in theory.
    There's definitely alot more to this, but don't feel bad if you can't figure it out. This is literally the science people spend their entire lives attempting to solve. Understanding the fundamental underworkings of our literal existence isnt something you just happen to have the ability to do. You are flesh and blood, and your instincts as well as common sense do not apply to the chaotic, esoteric universe that lets us live in it.
    In short, FTL might be fundamentally impossible because of physics, the theory of relativity, and paradoxs. To break a hardset rule might just not be physically possible, and we wont know for certain UNTIL we can figure out why Quantum Mechanics and Relativity don't mesh perfectly. Hope this helps, any physicists feel free to come and tell me if Im wrong somewhere. My understanding is very limited, so my word isnt law here.

  • Kevin McLain
    Kevin McLain Місяць тому

    Its always amazing howcsurprised humans are in their confusion over things they understand so poorly.

  • Iron Bridge
    Iron Bridge 11 місяців тому +39

    Your written script and voice work is top class, man. Documentary level for me, especially for a subject matter that I find intriguing.

  • Cole Van Landuyt
    Cole Van Landuyt 2 місяці тому

    This all makes complete sense and I understand what you’re saying. 🥴

  • Overseers Guardian
    Overseers Guardian Місяць тому

    Every point in the universe has a unique energy signature. If you can create a device that could detect it and another device that could create it then you would be able to phase out of one location and phase into the location you want to be at regardless of distance.

    • Team Panda
      Team Panda Місяць тому

      But to transfer the data of your existence it must travel the distance. You could never make a perfect copy of you somewhere else without any travel through space and some amount of time

  • Skalman564
    Skalman564 Місяць тому

    I think the thing is that people assosiate time with the speed of light. Seeing something has nothing to do with when it actually happens. Time still exists even if you are blind

  • RoNiNk
    RoNiNk 2 місяці тому

    i'm wondering how photons are experiencing space and time, since they are travelling at the speed of light there fore there space and time axis are the same. the more impressive fact for me that i can see in this diagram is that if you moving away from the object you are literally travelling backwards in time for that object

  • Anupam Ghosh
    Anupam Ghosh Місяць тому

    Regarding time paradoxes, I’d like to point out the dialog from Avengers End Game which seems logical that every moment a new universe is created with its own timeline and we live in multiverse.

  • Philip Breading
    Philip Breading 5 місяців тому +98

    Damn - these shows are amazing. I love the philosophy components and the human impact of cosmic questions.

  • 4ways2goNorthSouthEastWest
    4ways2goNorthSouthEastWest 11 днів тому

    How fast is the speed of sight? Would that be nice if we can look at a star and be there.

  • The metaphysical truck driver
    The metaphysical truck driver Місяць тому

    Seems quicker and easier to explore other dimensions then our own universe. I’m not aware of any world united effort to build interstellar ships FTL or otherwise. CERN and other facilities like it however are used to explore.

  • michael wolejszo
    michael wolejszo Місяць тому +1

    I would like to see a video relating schrodinger's cat theory with FTL.

  • Dennis Borgman
    Dennis Borgman 2 місяці тому

    Hello everyone , if one could exceed the speed of light causing a distortion in time to reverse itself. Would " effect equal cause " ? Thank you.

  • João Nunes
    João Nunes Місяць тому

    i think the problem is reaching the speed of light itself, not going over, from my physics recollections, the problem is to reach the speed of light your ship reaches limitless mass, hence the need for limitless energy, but if by any chance we skip this threshold, maybe it becomes possible...

  • Jeremy N
    Jeremy N Рік тому +14

    What a wonderful episode. I really loved the prespective you provided at the end. To view this inate limitation of sub-FTL speeds as a blessing, because it might compel us to live for future generations beyond ourselves. Beautiful stuff ^_^

  • Fixedguitar
    Fixedguitar 17 днів тому

    Time travel to the future is easy. I’ve done it, February 2nd 2010 to February 2nd 2020.
    I’m still in shock and amazement.

  • Stevie Deej
    Stevie Deej Місяць тому

    I have a question, I watched a UAclips vid the other day and it mentioned in that one that galaxies are travelling away from us faster than the speed of light while the universe expands outwards. My question is why are we not travelling out at the same rate as them. It was mentioned some galaxy will pass the edge of the observable universe. Surely if we are moving away from what we believe is the centre we should be going at the same speed.

  • Asha
    Asha Місяць тому

    The FTL technology in Star Trek was inspired by theoretical physics.

  • Humble Kek-Fearing Man
    Humble Kek-Fearing Man Місяць тому

    It seems to me like the "protagonist" of causality is the one with agency. It would seem more intuitive, if the realities that the STL ship intercepts FTL message and sends a reply, and that Earth receives the reply before sending the message exist simultaneously. Of course, this could have some kind of crisis "prophecy" applications, wherein you just have to assume that unsolicited messages have a context that exists from the STL ship's perspective, but are absent in your own. It might be a good way to undo or mitigate cosmic catastrophes, to surround your solar system with detection satellites equipped with FTL relays.
    You would just be in your office and you would receive a message saying "Don't tell anyone about the supernova about to happen." They would later land and rendezvous and report that you had previously send a message stating that a supernova happened, do they sent one back in time to tell you not to bother. In a way the STL ship would be its own pocket of causality, unrelated to the wider universe. To suppose this somehow breaks the universe would suppose any form of clairvoyance also does so. I'm aware the latter is fantasy, but that's also what's said of sufficiently advanced technology.

  • Mr. Robert Dobolina Esq.
    Mr. Robert Dobolina Esq. Місяць тому

    Our understanding of the physics of our universe is rudimentary, at best. People once truly believed that it was impossible to break the sound barrier.

  • micaiah middleton
    micaiah middleton 11 місяців тому +103

    Outstanding! FTL was always a dream since watching Star Trek as a kid. The fact that we can glimpse these wonders of the universe as water filled meat sacks is truly amazing. Even if it isn’t possible, I appreciate that logic as to why is isn’t possible. Space is big. We’re living in an age of high definition discovery.

    • Mateo Nikolic
      Mateo Nikolic 9 місяців тому +5

      Wouldn't call humans just water filled meat sacks. We are an outstanding species that just appeared shortly on earth. Our intelligence and consciousness is a God's given gift truly. In the future I believe we'll be able to change universe to our fit

    • K. Lisa Swensen
      K. Lisa Swensen 10 місяців тому +1

      Water filled meat sacks, lol 😂

  • Omari Kai
    Omari Kai Місяць тому

    This was mind blowing.

  • Sensai Vers
    Sensai Vers 10 днів тому

    Is it possible that FTL travel is possible but going backwards in time is just not an option? Essentially accelerating infinitely into the future but still having to wait for everything to catch up?

  • George A
    George A 11 днів тому

    If FTL is impossible, the upside is that the possibility of aliens attacking would be quite low.