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No-one knows how explosions work (yet)

  • Опубліковано 4 чер 2023
  • The first few moments of an explosion can't be simulated yet. But there's a team at the University of Sheffield working on it. ■ A paper about their work, including data from a similar test: www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/23/2/964 ■ More from them: www.sheffield.ac.uk/civil/
    Previously: why Hollywood explosions don't look like real explosions: • Why Hollywood explosio...
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  • Tom Scott
    Tom Scott  3 місяці тому +2740

    An update from Sam, the scientist in the video! He says: "It's been great reading through your comments and seeing people excited and intrigued by our research. I thought it'd be useful to answer some of the common questions that keep cropping up:
    1. Yes, high speed video/photography of explosions is nothing new. They did this all the way back in the 40s and it's famously how GI Taylor estimated the yield of the Trinity test. Our high speed video is not what gives us the new scientific insight, but it does help give us a steer as to what is going on, and it's a fantastic way to demonstrate what an alien world it is so close to an explosion (in time and space!)
    2. Our pressure measurements from the MaCE rig do give us the new scientific insight. If you want to see an example of our recorded data then please feel free to read our recent paper (link in description), Figure 5. We're measuring pressures higher than the strength of normal steel that are applied and removed in 50 microseconds. For comparison, a blink lasts >100 milliseconds, so over two thousand times longer!
    3. Scientists know a lot about nuclear explosions, that's true. There, the energy is released effectively instantaneously and effectively as a point-source. With high explosives, the reaction rates are comparatively slower. That means we have an ongoing chemical reaction that changes if/when the blast wave and fireball come into contact with structures. The exact loading applied to said structure is a function of the pressure-volume-energy state of the fireball, so there's an intricate dance between the two (pressure and reaction rates). This is where current models break down. Yes, even the sophisticated physics-based ones.
    4. We're only just discovering the extent of our ignorance, because until now we simply haven't had the experimental data to compare to. We do know that these secondary reactions are significant, which makes explosions (from high explosives) so difficult to simulate, because we've measured explosions in normal air and in an almost pure nitrogen environment.
    5. Yes, the mottled/bumpy surface of the fireball as it expands outwards is a genuine physical feature, and seen at larger scales too (see photos of the "Minor Scale" test). When we're performing tests that we intend to publish we form our explosives into a 3D-printed mould, but even then we still see these features.
    6. We filmed at 250 thousand frames per second for this video, but our camera can go all the way to 10 million frames per second.
    Thank you once again for showing an interest in our research. Cool, innit?"

    • Andrew D Barr
      Andrew D Barr 3 місяці тому +92

      For even more explosions and high speed video from Sam and the team, come find us at Sheffield Blast! 💥

    • Ramentheawsome
      Ramentheawsome 3 місяці тому +46

      Appreciate the follow up information, very exciting stuff!

    • OnboardG1
      OnboardG1 3 місяці тому +33

      Harold Edgerton, who developed the camera that photographed the Trinity test, is my scientific hero. He's a rare giant in both the arts and sciences and is one of the reasons I became an electronics engineer. He's a great example of how scientifc outreach using advanced technology can shine a light on the world and inspire the general public at the same time.

    • Thunder
      Thunder 3 місяці тому +3

      That definitely is very cool!

    • intelati
      intelati 3 місяці тому +17

      Thanks for the paper. I enjoy the feeling of the "I know some of these words, but I'm glad someone knows the worth of them"

  • SemiHypercube
    SemiHypercube 3 місяці тому +9756

    It does make sense why it's difficult to observe what happens in an explosion up close

    • Bluestrawberry
      Bluestrawberry 3 місяці тому +782

      You should be able to do it efficiently atleast once.

    • Mr. battle cats
      Mr. battle cats 3 місяці тому +209

      @Bluestrawberry while computers and such are fast nowdays, they likely are not fast enough to send the data about the explosion that fast. the only chanche would be to send the raw output from the sensor trough a wire, but you would still propaply only get about half to quater of it at max, and it would cost a few tens of thousands do to the camera breaking.

    • tesafrack
      tesafrack 3 місяці тому +61

      couldn't they just send lasers through the expanding wave to measure the density changes? with that you could even make a 3d model of it...

    • j s
      j s 3 місяці тому +168

      @tesafrack the light from the lasers will be reflected and refracted therefore producing inaccurate data, at least thats what i think.

    • Zwenk Wiel
      Zwenk Wiel 3 місяці тому +76

      It's easy though, just stand closer....

  • Tom Scott
    Tom Scott  3 місяці тому +3672

    The actual data from this test didn't make it into the video (it's just a LOT of numbers), but there's a paper in the description for those so inclined! And this week's pinned-comment plug: the Technical Difficulties are back! A new season of four adventures from me, Chris, Gary and Matt over at uaclips.com/user/techdif - one every Thursday.

  • The Engineering Mindset
    The Engineering Mindset 3 місяці тому +1271

    5:51 interesting to see the shockwave resonates the dust under the table. Wonder what impact this has on the signals within the data cables which run out from here and if a deflector would be beneficial

    • DreadX10
      DreadX10 3 місяці тому +64

      The dust is kicked up but I see no resonance. The shockwave through the air will hit the striped screen and bounce back. This could cause the appearance of a interference-pattern. I think the dust kicks up because the barrel restricts the flow of air underneath it. Also, the barrel's 4 wheels are pushed into the dirt, so they cause some disturbance too.

    • ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)
      ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°) 3 місяці тому +7

      @DreadX10 what's the differnece?

    • 1000 Eyes
      1000 Eyes 3 місяці тому +15

      As the wave passes through the cable linearly at any one point, as a radio wave would, you could likely use conventional noise removal techniques.

    • ᴀɴᴛeꜱʜᴇʟʟ
      ᴀɴᴛeꜱʜᴇʟʟ 3 місяці тому +10

      @( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°) Quite literally everything.

  • Zelmel
    Zelmel 3 місяці тому +5495

    You can always tell it's going to be a cool video when we see High Visibility Tom Scott appear.

    • Pattoe
      Pattoe 3 місяці тому +295

      It's hard not to see High Visibility Tom Scott appear.

    • Operator Chakkoty
      Operator Chakkoty 3 місяці тому +98

      ​@Pattoe He's hard to miss.

    • Aloysius Kurnia
      Aloysius Kurnia 3 місяці тому +33

      Then the high vis worked!

    • Ultra Vires
      Ultra Vires 3 місяці тому +25

      He needs a red hi-vis jacket

    • Gary Walker
      Gary Walker 3 місяці тому +13

      Should be a TS hiviz for sale as merch - missing a fortune

  • Brian Alleman
    Brian Alleman 3 місяці тому +2660

    I’m imagining the researchers pausing for moment when Tom asked what the purpose of this was and they had to fight the urge to say “because explosions are cool”

    • Daniel Dugovic
      Daniel Dugovic 3 місяці тому +107

      "We're definitely not planning something malicious."

    • Mad Isn’t It
      Mad Isn’t It 3 місяці тому +72

      “Because we haven’t had a decent pay rise...”

    • Borrego a Yudando
      Borrego a Yudando 3 місяці тому +57

      ​@Mad Isn’t It most dangerous trade to displease the labor union: high explosives research scientists

    • Vigilant Cosmic Penguin
      Vigilant Cosmic Penguin 3 місяці тому +27

      "It's about sending a message."

    • steem lenn
      steem lenn 3 місяці тому +13

      @Borrego a Yudando Nah. The auto industry. Millions of deadly several-tons things with the power of several hundred horses that nobody bats an eye about whereever they are. THOSE are dangerous.

  • David Pittman
    David Pittman 3 місяці тому +928

    Tom is the only person that makes a saftey vest look like reasonable casual wear.

    • Daniel Radnedge
      Daniel Radnedge 3 місяці тому +70

      We're just so used to it now that it's like him adorning a red t-shirt.

    • The Zouave
      The Zouave 3 місяці тому +38

      I think a lot of this has to do with how the color of the reflective strips match the color of the hoodie.

    • Wendeez
      Wendeez 3 місяці тому +1

      @The Zouave my exact thoughts

    • Vojtěch Janda
      Vojtěch Janda 3 місяці тому +10

      ...whereas colinfurze is the only person that makes a casual tie look like reasonable safety equipment :D

    • CatFish107
      CatFish107 3 місяці тому

      ever been in an English pub around lunch time?

  • Household Dog
    Household Dog 3 місяці тому +636

    Always amazes me that a scientist 100 years ago can think up theories that we can only test today.

    • Titan
      Titan 3 місяці тому +93

      Kinda same nowdays, there are a lot of theories that we have no way to prove but who knows, maybe 100 years later someone will prove or disprove them (string theory etc)

    • Abel
      Abel 3 місяці тому +18

      When you have people who dedicate their lives for their dreams, they excel. The entire lives of these scientists were composed of constant studying and creativity. Like Isaac Newton, he studied daily. And with his creativity, he began applying his knowledge to many other fields.

    • Colopty
      Colopty 3 місяці тому +36

      And if those scientists were still alive I'd like to believe they'd be very smug about it.

    • The Zip Creator
      The Zip Creator 3 місяці тому +30

      @Titan idk if string theory will ever be falsifiable, it's just so out there, and they always say that they'll get evidence in the next decade.
      then again, we were able to disprove theories that explained dark energy as instead the universe existing on a 5d shape via closely measuring gravitational waves, so maybe we'll be able to someday.

    • ~Lynx~
      ~Lynx~ 3 місяці тому +4

      @Colopty Who wouldn't be? It would be amazing to be that correct that far back.

  • Spot Allen
    Spot Allen 3 місяці тому +1001

    The best of these videos are when the chaperone is as giddy and excited about the tech as Tom is.

    • David Knowles
      David Knowles 3 місяці тому +65

      There nothing better than a excited adult. May be because most are pretty boring and unexcitable.

    • N P H
      N P H 3 місяці тому +21

      @David Knowlesand perhaps also because we have been conditioned by society not to show excitement even if we feel it 🥲

    • March madness
      March madness 3 місяці тому +6

      @N P H absolutely and it's such a loss for every one of us. Let's all get giddy about things we love!

    • soundscape26
      soundscape26 3 місяці тому +2

      @N P H Not to show excitement? Ever been to a football match? Sometimes there's way too much excitement.

    • Sam Rigby
      Sam Rigby 3 місяці тому +7

      That's *Dr* Chaperone to you... ;-)

  • Void Mayonnaise
    Void Mayonnaise 3 місяці тому +3872

    3:17 Tom: “What’s the use for this?”
    Researchers: “Uh, because *it’s rad?”*

    • Cal
      Cal 3 місяці тому +333

      "We'd like to look at an explosion in slow motion"
      The funding board: "say no more fam"

    • proCaylak
      proCaylak 3 місяці тому +34

      maybe they also **deg** it.

    • pileofstuff
      pileofstuff 3 місяці тому +121

      The researcher's last word on the subject is "cool, innit?"
      When the researchers are excited by their work, that's when you get the most results.

    • Peppery Peppers
      Peppery Peppers 3 місяці тому +6

      That's science

    • Crank
      Crank 3 місяці тому +104

      @Peppery Peppers "Remember kids, the only difference between screwing around and science is writing it down." - Alex Jason/Adam Savage Edit: I got the quote slightly wrong. Fixed.

  • Hieracium
    Hieracium 3 місяці тому +474

    If you go to 5:06 and use the . button to go frame by frame, you can see that the ground lights up 1 frame before the explosion is visible. This is because the camera scans in "lines" of pixels top to bottom. When it was at the explosive material, it had not gone off yet, by the time it got to the ground, it had.

    • richcolour
      richcolour 3 місяці тому +42

      thank you for the dot button tip!

    • Kaspian Epps
      Kaspian Epps 3 місяці тому +36

      @richcolour You can also use the comma to go back a frame.

    • Shelton Golden
      Shelton Golden 3 місяці тому +11

      Equally interesting is the shape and location of the light. It almost looks masked off somehow.

    • F. Eugene Dunnam III
      F. Eugene Dunnam III 3 місяці тому +42

      Thanks for the tip on how waste even more time on you tube. Now I have watch all the slowmo guys videos again.

    • Vivek Venugopal
      Vivek Venugopal 3 місяці тому

      Wow, cool find! Thanks!

  • ICountFrom0
    ICountFrom0 3 місяці тому +229

    I love it when a sciency person says, "We don't know what we don't know", it's both so true, and so honest.

    • beth12svist
      beth12svist 3 місяці тому +13

      Or sometimes just "we don't know."
      It actually kind of is a sign of a good sciency person that they WILL say that.

    • James Henner
      James Henner 3 місяці тому +2

      If you don't know what you don't know, does that involve research research?

    • Beans
      Beans 3 місяці тому +7

      Unknown unknows are an important concepr in theory of knowledge as it requires different approaches and heuristics.

    • Aaron Davis
      Aaron Davis 3 місяці тому

      ​@Beans Just ask Donald Rumsfeld. Unknown unknowns ruined his life.

  • Lara’s Flying Adventures
    Lara’s Flying Adventures 3 місяці тому +71

    Tom, this has been a game changer video. I cannot understate how much this has solidified what I want to do as a career. I’m currently working on a forensic science degree and have been thinking of doing something like explosives and/or fires. Yes, I do definitely want to do this. This blew my mind up with it! Thank you!!

    • Josh Cat
      Josh Cat 3 місяці тому +6

      you could say, mind blown?

    • Supreme Clamitas
      Supreme Clamitas 3 місяці тому +3

      An explosive epiphany!

    • Marino
      Marino 3 місяці тому +2

      Cool, good luck!

  • Krazylegz42
    Krazylegz42 3 місяці тому +339

    Oh hey, this is something I actually do active research and development on! We’ve actually gotten pretty good at making computer simulations of these kind of explosions using multi-phase physics models. The Kingery-Bulmash model that Tom mentioned is still used in places, but it’s ridiculously simple compared to real simulations.

    • Colin Davies
      Colin Davies 3 місяці тому +23

      I've always been curious: how do you wrangle the positive feedback from heating? Do you let it run wild but put a cap on transport rates, or what's the strategy?

    • Ethan
      Ethan 3 місяці тому +7

      That's so cool! Are any of those simulators publicly available?

    • Chris
      Chris 3 місяці тому +3

      And here I thought blowing things up industrially was fun. I really want to get into the research/engineering side of things, but that generally requires more education than I've got/am willing and able to acquire at this point.

    • Krazylegz42
      Krazylegz42 3 місяці тому +31

      @Colin Davies That's such a good question. If you're modeling the chemistry, then the heat production will be limited by how much reactant is available. So like you say, it's limited by transport, either how fast fresh reactant can get in by diffusion, or how fast the heat can spread by thermal conductivity. Or in the case of a detonation, it's limited by the how fast the shock wave can travel and how much energy can be released by the material.
      In my case, we don't really model the detailed chemistry because it'd be so expensive. We have an equation of state for the energetic material, which controls the amount of energy and temperature that's released.

    • xBaronSamedi
      xBaronSamedi 3 місяці тому +3

      @Krazylegz42 got any recommended reading for equation of state models? I’ve done some reading on impact constituent models like Johnson cook, but I had trouble finding a primer of shock EOS

  • Nitro
    Nitro 3 місяці тому +505

    tom scott is THE cool guy that doesn't look at explosions

    • gruber450
      gruber450 3 місяці тому +8

      He is HIM

    • Squeeeps
      Squeeeps 3 місяці тому +13

      He blows things up and then walks away

    • Drackco Nova
      Drackco Nova 3 місяці тому +2

      He just listens

    • Thick Momson
      Thick Momson 3 місяці тому +3

      He strides forward in his dimond covered boots

    • Max Lennon
      Max Lennon 3 місяці тому +9

      He does, however, give a cheesy grin to camera!

  • Laurence Williams
    Laurence Williams 3 місяці тому +73

    Sam was my lecturer in the blast protection module of my civil engineering degree. Fascinating subject and a great teacher.

    • Marko
      Marko 3 місяці тому +14

      Sam popping off and getting the limelight he absolutely deserves

  • Marvin De Bot
    Marvin De Bot 3 місяці тому +34

    Nothing a scientist loves more than someone who obviously appreciates their work, you could see how chuffed he was at Tom's genuine amazement.

  • DoctorX17
    DoctorX17 3 місяці тому +106

    It’s amazing how many things there are that people had theories about how they worked 100+ years ago, and yet we’re either no closer to actually knowing or we’re JUST getting into it, like this

    • Mendelson
      Mendelson 3 місяці тому

      Just imagine life 100 years from now

  • yaseen reza
    yaseen reza 3 місяці тому +9

    We had this problem when designing our detonation rig at the University of Southampton. We needed a way to collect experimental data that wasn't just qualitative, and it was incredibly difficult to find a sensor that we could expose directly to the detonation on the inside of a detonation chamber that could read data fast enough, resist the 3,000 Kelvin instantaneous temperature, and sustain anywhere from vacuum to 60 atmospheres of pressure. Using strain gauges is a cool idea to look at detonation wave speeds, but I don't see how they can read static pressure and temperature with time

  • Kiernan Elizabeth
    Kiernan Elizabeth 3 місяці тому +232

    No-one knows how explosions work (yet), but Tom Scott will be there to tell us, for sure

  • Mighty Owl
    Mighty Owl 3 місяці тому +74

    Interestingly enough this is a similar problem that we have in lightning research, in the sense that you cannot get close to the object you are studying. So maybe their research can also benefit lightning researchers in their efforts!

    • CKFYCoren
      CKFYCoren 3 місяці тому +3

      I thought rocket induced lightning has been a thing for many years. Are you talking about the high altitude stuff?

    • KaboomGaming 42
      KaboomGaming 42 3 місяці тому +17

      ​@CKFYCoreni think they mean the fact that you can't put sensitive sensors right next to lightning bolts because they'll get fried

    • glypnir
      glypnir 3 місяці тому +2

      I suspect that the data gathered can be used to suppress or enhance explosions in the future. It is ever so. It’s also a constant that the researchers will present what the think sells the best.

  • StairStealer
    StairStealer 3 місяці тому +26

    I love how jealous Tom looked when he was told the camera recorded a quarter million FPS. Like, that was just as much a highlight for him as the explosion

    • Marc Tamlyn
      Marc Tamlyn 3 місяці тому +3

      If ever there was a Tom Scott video to collab with Slow Mo Guys...

    • Trit0n1
      Trit0n1 3 місяці тому +3

      And we run that camera all the way up to 10 million frames per second 😅

    • Marvin De Bot
      Marvin De Bot 3 місяці тому +1

      @Trit0n1 Holy crap! How many tenths of a second can you put in buffer at that rate?

    • Trit0n1
      Trit0n1 3 місяці тому

      @Marvin De Bot We can only put 128 frames in buffer.

    • Marvin De Bot
      Marvin De Bot 3 місяці тому

      @Trit0n1 I thought it would be small. that's an incredible framerate. So you get about a nanosecond of footage?

  • theninjabay
    theninjabay 3 місяці тому +9

    The "kick vs push" question is similar to the "what is a dot?" one. if you look far enough, everything is a dot (just like everything is a kick if you speed it fast enough). It becomes interesting if you zoom in the other direction. :)

    • Sam Rigby
      Sam Rigby 3 місяці тому +5

      Don't mind me, just stealing this explanation to use in the future ;-)

  • JB Lewis
    JB Lewis 3 місяці тому +72

    I feel like, as a result of so many encounters with so many different phenomena, Tom has begun to intuit some of the observations these scientists are making. A sort of "wait, wait, don't tell me! Let me see if I've got this right!" thing.

    • Caramell Dansen
      Caramell Dansen 3 місяці тому +11

      He probably does his research, too.

    • Vigilant Cosmic Penguin
      Vigilant Cosmic Penguin 3 місяці тому +2

      Tom Scott is the scientist whisperer.

    • GuyIncognito
      GuyIncognito 3 місяці тому +2

      It's just common sense if you're vaguely scientifically minded.

  • jaciem
    jaciem 3 місяці тому +31

    The last two utterances in this video encapsulate why I watch Tom Scott videos: his genuine desire not only to allow people passionate about interesting things to explain them, but also to *get excited along with them*.

    • KarlEller
      KarlEller 3 місяці тому +1

      Tom geeks out about learning new things, which lets the people he's interviewing geek out about their subject matter.

  • Fisheyes Production
    Fisheyes Production 3 місяці тому +13

    The dust coming off the large concrete pad is really interesting - shows how much energy is in even that 100g of explosive

    • Aaron Davis
      Aaron Davis 3 місяці тому

      or 0.000000005 Hiroshimas.
      Actually this only works if the explosive is tnt but I can't be bothered.

  • WisdomThumbs
    WisdomThumbs 3 місяці тому +6

    Last year I worked for a MACV-SOG/SEAL veteran, who works for the Department of Defense. He’s been mapping the surface areas of expanding blast waves as an engineer. I learned new applications of Brownian Motion from him.

    • Jonathan Pfeffer
      Jonathan Pfeffer 3 місяці тому

      damn, MACV-SOG and an engineer, that’s a hell of a career

    • John
      John 2 місяці тому

      @Jonathan Pfefferdespite the stereotype about soldiers being stupid you don’t become special forces if you’re dumb. Most of those guys could go get a college degree and be successful out of the military.
      The reason they stay in and get shot at is because they want to.

  • Jan Krusat
    Jan Krusat 3 місяці тому +9

    Reminds me of the shock waves reflected by the ground during air bursts of nuclear weapons (albeit on a much larger scale), which then interfere constructively and largely increase the force of the blast.

  • miri am
    miri am 3 місяці тому +10

    Wish I had this video about 4 months ago, my dissertation was about simulating fires and part of the background was saying why we couldn't/ it's so difficult to simulate explosions! Nice video once again 👌

  • Datamining101
    Datamining101 3 місяці тому +6

    The multiscale/multiphysics and tiny timesteps required to simulate this stuff is so complicated. Data like this is used during validation and uncertainty quantification for models.

  • POTThaesslich
    POTThaesslich 3 місяці тому +19

    Now do a video of you going through Heathrow security. I once visited an explosion test site and then had a very interesting discussion at the Airport…

    • Marvin De Bot
      Marvin De Bot 3 місяці тому +12

      I'm a pyrotech, we put all clothing worn during blasting in sealed bags in checked luggage. Nothing (even boots) that was near explosives goes on you or in your carry-on. I pass the swab testing 95% of the time and we have ID to cover the times we don't.

  • J Blen
    J Blen 3 місяці тому +37

    I get that its built for different forces and that, but its quite funny seeing this box delicately lowered to the ground by the forklift before it's blown up by an explosive

    • mrpositronia
      mrpositronia 3 місяці тому +8

      Like protecting a perpetrator's head as they get in the police car, after being tazered and beaten.

  • David Kerr
    David Kerr 3 місяці тому +26

    Ooh! The HSE labs :) fascinating place. Built on top of RAF Harpur Hill, in its day it was the second largest munitions dump in the country - a honeycomb of concrete bunkers built in a disused quarry before being backfilled to look like a hill again. Also one of the locations where the MOD dismantled and studied the German vengeance weapons of WW2...

    • Mad Isn’t It
      Mad Isn’t It 3 місяці тому +2


    • Trit0n1
      Trit0n1 3 місяці тому +1

      Have you got any history about the area? This site is on top of hte hill and not near the tunnels. But we are very interested in the site and its history and always lookin for more information.

  • Dave Rosser
    Dave Rosser 3 місяці тому +11

    Have you ever covered how factories stitch books with thread? I'm trying to get my brain around it and just can't. I haven't found any videos that go into how it works, at least not as well or detailed or complete as some do for fabric sewing.

    • ktcd1172
      ktcd1172 3 місяці тому +5

      @Dave Rosser It might be an older method than you are looking for, but Adam Savage just recently did some videos on bookbinding at a bookbinding museum with historical equipment. The person explaining things to Adam went into detail about how the equipment sewed the signatures.

    • Allen H
      Allen H 3 місяці тому +2

      Look for medieval bookbinding videos, one just popped up on my recommended vids last week. I would imagine factories do it the same way just quicker..

  • EJGilb
    EJGilb 3 місяці тому +1

    Congratulations on 6m subs Tom, still going strong after all this time ❤.

  • Quack Force One
    Quack Force One 3 місяці тому

    I absolutely love watching you. so informational. I just set you up on my second monitor and work on my primary.. Keeps me entertained all day! Thank you!

  • Greg Blake
    Greg Blake 3 місяці тому +23

    It's amazing that we can understand so much about nature, yet be eluded by such basic things. Another example of this is the dynamics of a 2 wheeled vehicle such as a bicycle or motorcycle.

    • Brennan Crock
      Brennan Crock 3 місяці тому +2

      Humans 100% understand every aspect of how a bicycle works. Coming from a bike shop mechanic.

    • Greg Blake
      Greg Blake 3 місяці тому +4

      You should publish a paper describing how the wheels rotating increases upright stability then. It would be guaranteed to make waves.

    • soaringvulture
      soaringvulture 3 місяці тому +1

      @Brennan Crock Right. My bicycle has never done anything strange. Even when crashing into a BMW.

    • Brennan Crock
      Brennan Crock 3 місяці тому +2

      @Greg Blake already been done many times, my wave would be minuscule in magnitude and duration

    • Max
      Max 3 місяці тому

      @Brennan Crock I just looked it up and it has not been done. It looks like theory is that the moving wheel creates a gyroscopic effect which keeps it upright but they did an experiment to eliminate the gyroscopic effect and it it still remained stable soooooo

  • kasper hansen
    kasper hansen 29 днів тому

    Would be very cool to see what that would do to a person standing a 1-3 meters away from it, like would the pressure damage the organs or would they be fine as long as they aren't within reach of the flames? Would love to see a test with a balastic gels simulated person with simulated organs

  • Edivino Boveto
    Edivino Boveto 3 місяці тому +7

    That's true! I'm an FX artist and the start of the simulation is pretty weird, it looks cool because it's the magic of the cinema, it's based on real life but the actual application is very weird indeed lol

  • Raitch R
    Raitch R 3 місяці тому +6

    Can we all appreciate how much a wonder nerd Tom is. He is all of us there

  • Enabi Seira
    Enabi Seira 3 місяці тому +1

    That was fascinating. Thanks to the reasearch team for showing us

  • Rock Steel Titan
    Rock Steel Titan 3 місяці тому +15

    Damn, filmed at about 250,000 fps, giving The Slow Mo Guys a run for their money.

    • longofire236
      longofire236 3 місяці тому +3

      These researchers have a camera that does 10,000,000 FPS

    • Rock Steel Titan
      Rock Steel Titan 3 місяці тому

      @longofire236 Damn that’s one strong camera

    • Christian Siauwijaya
      Christian Siauwijaya 3 місяці тому

      @Rock Steel Titan That's what millions in research funding pay for. Powerful research instruments and talents (of course).

  • McStebb
    McStebb 3 місяці тому +3

    2:15 Kinda cool to see 3D printed tooling used in an application like this! With heat set threaded inserts even

  • leedsmanc
    leedsmanc 2 місяці тому

    Cool to see the floor is immediately concealed by the raised dust at the point of explosion and then the dust near the floor rushes towards the explosion, which feels counter-intuitive and makes you think about what's really happening.

  • Jakobs Werld
    Jakobs Werld 3 місяці тому

    I wish I could go out and see something cool with Tom someday that would be the experience of a lifetime

  • Bbonno
    Bbonno 3 місяці тому +1

    I would have loved to see a comparison between the data for the rod withstanding an explosion, being struck with a regular hammer and a dead-blow hammer.

  • Leo
    Leo 3 місяці тому +2

    tom i want you to know that i love your podcast lateral and will be absolutely crushed if it ever goes away, mentioning it here, because i didn't know it existed until recently.

  • Delco Goblin
    Delco Goblin 3 місяці тому +29

    It's amazing how the black and white slow mo looks exactly like those still frames of the Trinity explosion, which was 186,000 times bigger.

  • Wolf Elkan
    Wolf Elkan 3 місяці тому +1

    You could say that it's those "bigger problems" that Tom mentions right at the start that this research is trying to solve.

  • Ask_os _
    Ask_os _ 3 місяці тому

    As far as I know, there’s not really a distinction between a «hit» and a «push» in physics, besides the difference between a short vs long force impulse (Force * time). Its interesting to see how they go about measuring such strong forces that’s applied within such short timeframes.

  • MelodicMiner5
    MelodicMiner5 3 місяці тому +16

    This is the kind of thing I thought people would have figured out by now. It’s crazy how much we still don’t know about the world

    • J B
      J B 3 місяці тому +3

      It’s that classic thing of asking, “yes, but why…?” over and over again… get closer, get smaller, see things in more depth… answer the ‘Why?’ at one scale and then ask, “But what happens at the molecular scale?”

    • Benjamin Brooks
      Benjamin Brooks 3 місяці тому +2

      We've been blowing things up for a long time; it's reasonable to think that.
      But anything chaotic is really hard to model. We don't really understand turbulent flow such as water in a stream either.

    • Andrew Blacker
      Andrew Blacker 3 місяці тому

      It's crazy?
      You don't know what "crazy" really means.

  • Awe
    Awe 3 місяці тому +19

    i genuinely feel like insights in this research can be changing the future of humanity, control over the force exerted at that precise a scale lets us make new engines, reactors, materials

  • DubteamDMD
    DubteamDMD 3 місяці тому +22

    Awesome work Tom! as always!!!

  • Phil Wilcox
    Phil Wilcox 3 місяці тому +7

    Great video Tom - but please for goodness sake get the slow mo guys there with a phantom camera! They did an amazing video with an explosion where you could clearly see the shockwave, initial blast wave and negative wave pressure.

  • Hank
    Hank 3 місяці тому

    I'm always impressed by learning about times tinkerers, thinkers, and scientists had ideas long before the technology or economy was in place to support making them a reality, or at least practically ex[ploring them.

  • I am phantom
    I am phantom 3 місяці тому +5

    That’s what I’m working on currently for my masters. It’s a difficult line of research due to how much of it isn’t public knowledge.

  • JAMP0T1
    JAMP0T1 3 місяці тому

    I’d love to see how a deeper understanding of how an explosion acts and how the flame propagates will effect internal combustion engine design

  • Jagger
    Jagger 3 місяці тому +1

    Wouldn’t this be akin to the way a multi joint pendulum swing would work? As in the sensitivity to the starting conditions is high, so variability in the cascading effects would be extremely pronounced?
    I wonder how an explosion changes when the detonation position is moved, even in something designed to pressurize it.

  • The Cheaterman
    The Cheaterman 3 місяці тому +3

    It's interesting how a slow-mo real explosion looks a lot like a movie one :-) turns out they were really onto something, haha!

  • evbono
    evbono 3 місяці тому +2

    I'd be curious to see if increases in knowledge could lead to major improvements in internal combustion engines.

    • Trit0n1
      Trit0n1 3 місяці тому

      There is a lot of chemistry teams involved in this as well. And you are right the burning and combusion side is interesting as well for things like combusion engines in a slightly different way.

  • Diphylla
    Diphylla 3 місяці тому +9

    I could easily observe an explosion up close in detail. At least once.

  • RedSunT
    RedSunT 3 місяці тому +6

    "Remember kids, the only difference between screwing around and science is writing it down."

  • DaLoveDonkey Drums and Gaming
    DaLoveDonkey Drums and Gaming 3 місяці тому +2

    I wonder how many things rapidly advanced once really good slo-mo became a thing.

  • My real name is I AM
    My real name is I AM 3 місяці тому +3

    I didn't know this was a mystery. I always assumed other people could sense the blast wave rebounds. Very interesting.

  • Geeksmithing
    Geeksmithing 3 місяці тому +55

    This video is pyrotechnically correct. The best kind of correct.

  • PovertyMidas
    PovertyMidas 3 місяці тому +1

    FASCINATING stuff, the possibilities are astounding of this kind of understanding

  • michelinman 8592
    michelinman 8592 2 місяці тому +2

    Now *THIS* is the kind of science I can get behind!

  • Ferocious Ferret
    Ferocious Ferret 3 місяці тому +1

    Felt the shockwave of a small explosion once at Nellis. It was a barrel of fuel that they detonated. It was kewl. Wasn't like the wind blowing, but your clothes vibrates.

  • Jamie Pearson
    Jamie Pearson 3 місяці тому +12

    That feeling when you're just graduating from Sheffield and you didn't even realise that your uni was doing thing.

  • 1000 Eyes
    1000 Eyes 3 місяці тому +2

    It's odd how the explosion doesn't even look that dangerous

  • Nic Gauthier
    Nic Gauthier 3 місяці тому +14

    It almost looks like a fractal pattern when it’s exploding, as if it’s pushing in a set path.

  • Gene Wells
    Gene Wells 3 місяці тому

    This is relevant to the company I work for, Dynasafe. One of our product lines is Protective chambers that are used at Airports, by Bob Squads etc. for ieds that may be found.

  • Nick March
    Nick March 3 місяці тому +2

    That was absolutely fascinating and possibly the most interesting vid I’ve watched this year.

  • Damien's Adventure
    Damien's Adventure 3 місяці тому

    Tom... I know you say it can't be simulated but... I'm sure Todd Howard and maybe Circa 2010 DICE already has. It had something to do with two point of reference pixels overlapping and eventually multiplying the repulsion force exponentially and faster in a runaway logic train until an integer fails to post and then the anti lag code kicks in and reads the object as moving away from the other object. In which the object exploded outward. Sometimes into space.

  • Mr Flobbles
    Mr Flobbles 3 місяці тому

    The fact that we have the explosives we do right now with how little we actually know about explosives makes me fear for the future where we know exactly how they work.

  • Team Cyborg
    Team Cyborg 3 місяці тому

    I like how the title implies that Tom is going to directly cause an act of terror that will _MAKE THEM LEARN_

  • JustMeJ
    JustMeJ 3 місяці тому +36

    This looks like a job for the Slo Mo Guys 😁

  • Aria Valencia
    Aria Valencia 3 місяці тому

    It's understandable why observing the details of an explosion up close is challenging.

  • Alklazaris
    Alklazaris 3 місяці тому

    What about the direct flash at the top @ 5:18? I am curious about initial reaction. It seems much faster than the explosion itself... maybe as fast as the shockwave?

  • Andrew Gwilt
    Andrew Gwilt 3 місяці тому

    I thought that explosions were just myths and an explosion is what people see with all that energy. But this is lot more interesting and still as dangerous that only experts can experiment.

  • Minor Antagonist
    Minor Antagonist 3 місяці тому

    I wonder if data from this sort of experiment could help the quest for viable fusion.

  • argentpuck
    argentpuck 3 місяці тому

    The more I learn about chemistry, especially at atomic scale, the more I'm amazed other people aren't obsessed with this stuff. A wave of force that propagates within the barest fraction of a second applying so much energy to the enclosed system that a 10 square meter concrete pad is shaken hard enough to release dust clouds, and it's all caused by unusually energetic interactions happening at subatomic scale in an object with a mass of a less than a kilogram.

  • James Zigrino
    James Zigrino 3 місяці тому +1

    For those that are curious this was filmed at Health & Safety Executive Science and Research Centre near Buxton, Derbyshire (you can clearly see the tower on top of Grinlow Hill behind Scott). I once had a summer job there helping build dust extraction ducting systems on that very blast pad - and then blowing them up and analysing the data on Apricot computers; a ridiculously fun job for a 16 year old.
    Fun fact the W3W location of the lab is somehow, implausibly safely.rules.eclipses

  • MtSpaceInEar!
    MtSpaceInEar! 3 місяці тому +4

    The slomo guys do this and have had some amazing results with reignited gasses from the pressure wave

  • John Sim
    John Sim 3 місяці тому

    They need to have a look at the transmission line method for simulating electromagnetic fields. A transient pulse fed in to a simulation like that looks very similar to the blast wave and reflections in this video.

  • Martin Von Martian
    Martin Von Martian 3 місяці тому

    if I am not mistaken it's taught in the military to stay clear of walls during explosions exactly because of this double pressure from the blast and the bounce.

  • Trabber Shir
    Trabber Shir 3 місяці тому

    What is sad to me is that a lot of this data is known to exist, but not accessible. Because, it was measured in the development of explosive lenses for imploding plutonium pits.

  • Gravy
    Gravy 3 місяці тому

    honestly, imagine having the imaginiation to have a theory that could only be proved 109 years later

  • Togidubnus
    Togidubnus 3 місяці тому +1

    As always a perfect video 🙂

  • hg
    hg 3 місяці тому +7

    At 05:13 : Tom's got the face of someone who's going to spend the next 12 hours searching for the right frame 😅. Fortunately, it didn't take that long.

  • Rick Hobson
    Rick Hobson 3 місяці тому

    It reminds me of high speed footage done of nuclear explosions. I bet there's a lot of explosion/fluid dynamics information locked away in nuclear vaults that these people would love to have.

  • Razing then raising
    Razing then raising 3 місяці тому +1

    It is amazing what you can do when you can record the speed of light! Wow!

  • james
    james 3 місяці тому +1

    doesnt seem so complicated to me. 2 things come in contact, react like theres no tomorrow. reaction causes a sudden rise in pressure pushing everything away from the epicentre. Just the pressure raises exponentially as you get closer.
    I dont think anything fundamentally different happens at the beginning that will change our understanding.

  • Skyler Brown
    Skyler Brown 3 місяці тому +1

    Actually Tom, if your 5cm away from an explosion, you probably dont have any problems left at all.

  • jmalmsten
    jmalmsten 3 місяці тому

    Oh, that does look an awful lot like old test footage of nuclear explosions, doesn't it, mr Nolan?
    I wonder if they can add thin wires of some materials that can be used to make the characteristic fireball "legs" of tests where the nuke was up on a mast with support wires.

  • John Chessant
    John Chessant 3 місяці тому +7

    how awesome would it be to say you study explosions for a living

    • Sam Rigby
      Sam Rigby 3 місяці тому

      If only it would make me a hit at parties... 😮‍💨

    STRAVI 3 місяці тому

    What if we’ll get closer and closer to simulating an explosion, using a more and more advanced ai, until a self repeating loop generates a simulated explosion so dense and complex it turns out to actually be the big bang

  • SeagIe
    SeagIe 3 місяці тому +1

    It does make sense why it would be so "difficult" to measure and understand a concept so important to nuclear weapons.

  • Ashton Santee
    Ashton Santee 3 місяці тому +1

    The percent of videos recently where Tom is wearing a safety vest is through the roof.

  • CarthagoMike
    CarthagoMike 3 місяці тому +1

    Interesting stuff. I'll be sure to check out the paper you linked in the description.